Theory that accounts for the bonding and properties of metallic solids.
- Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis
In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.
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Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry. As these quality standards become...
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It's getting close to New Years and many people are starting to think about how to lose those extra pounds they managed to gain over the holidays. There are many sorts of diets and fads that have developed over the years from cutting carbs to cutting protein. Everyone has their own opinion as to...
- Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope
The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...
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People use chemicals every day for a wide array of purposes, which can include work and house hold duties. Many of us fail to realize that we are actually handling potentially deadly chemicals when we simply clean the bathroom or wash the car. This brings to mind the reason why chemical safety is...
Covalent bond in which there is an unsymmetrical distribution of electron density.
A heterogeneous mixture in which solute-like particles do not settle out.
van der Waals' Equation
An equation of state that extends the ideal gas law to real gases by inclusion of two empirically determined parameters, which are different for different gases.
A series of reactions (and accompanying enthalpy changes) which, when summed, represents the hypothetical one-step reaction by which elements in their standard states are converted into crystals of ionic compounds (and the accompanying enthalpy changes.)
The quantity of product formed by the interaction of two or more substances, generally expressed as a percentage of the quantity obtained to that theoretically obtainable.
A subatomic particle having a mass of 0.00054858 amu and a charge of 1-.
A nuclear reactor that produces more fissionable nuclear fuel than it consumes.
Reaction of a substance with water.
The buildup of a product of oxidation or a reduction of an electrode, preventing further reaction.
Effective Nuclear Charge
The nuclear charge experienced by the outermost electrons of an atom, the actual nuclear charge minus the effects of shielding due to inner-shell electrons.
Example: Set of dx2-y2 and dz2 orbitals, those d orbitals within a set with lobes directed along the x-, y-, and z-axes.
An equilibrium constant for a hydrolysis reaction.
Of electrons, refers to bonding electrons that are distributed among more than two atoms that are bonded together, occurs in species that exhibit resonance.
The formation of a set of molecular orbitals that extend over more than two atoms, important in species that valence bond theory describes in terms of resonance.
A compound containing an alkyl group bonded to a benzene ring.
Hydrolysis of esters in the presence of strong soluable bases.
A reaction in which two atoms or groups of atoms are added to a molecule, one on each side of a double or triple bond. Types of addition reaction include electrophilic, nucleophilic (polar) and free radical addition (non-polar).
A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in center and four atoms at the corners of a tetrahedron.
Hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds. They are also called alkanes or paraffin hydrocarbons.
Descibes the quantitative (mass) relationships among elements in compounds.
The substance that oxidizes another substance and is reduced.
The spontaneous disintegration of atomic nuclei.