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Theory that accounts for the bonding and properties of metallic solids.

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Polar Bond

Covalent bond in which there is an unsymmetrical distribution of electron density.

Colloid

A heterogeneous mixture in which solute-like particles do not settle out.

van der Waals' Equation

An equation of state that extends the ideal gas law to real gases by inclusion of two empirically determined parameters, which are different for different gases.

Born-Haber Cycle

A series of reactions (and accompanying enthalpy changes) which, when summed, represents the hypothetical one-step reaction by which elements in their standard states are converted into crystals of ionic compounds (and the accompanying enthalpy changes.)

yield

The quantity of product formed by the interaction of two or more substances, generally expressed as a percentage of the quantity obtained to that theoretically obtainable.

Electron

A subatomic particle having a mass of 0.00054858 amu and a charge of 1-.

Breeder Reactor

A nuclear reactor that produces more fissionable nuclear fuel than it consumes.

Hydration

Reaction of a substance with water.

Polarization

The buildup of a product of oxidation or a reduction of an electrode, preventing further reaction.

Effective Nuclear Charge

The nuclear charge experienced by the outermost electrons of an atom, the actual nuclear charge minus the effects of shielding due to inner-shell electrons.
Example: Set of dx2-y2 and dz2 orbitals, those d orbitals within a set with lobes directed along the x-, y-, and z-axes.

Hydrolysis Constant

An equilibrium constant for a hydrolysis reaction.

Delocalization

Of electrons, refers to bonding electrons that are distributed among more than two atoms that are bonded together, occurs in species that exhibit resonance.
The formation of a set of molecular orbitals that extend over more than two atoms, important in species that valence bond theory describes in terms of resonance.

Alkylbenzene

A compound containing an alkyl group bonded to a benzene ring.

Saponification

Hydrolysis of esters in the presence of strong soluable bases.

Addition Reaction

A reaction in which two atoms or groups of atoms are added to a molecule, one on each side of a double or triple bond. Types of addition reaction include electrophilic, nucleophilic (polar) and free radical addition (non-polar).

Tetrahedral

A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in center and four atoms at the corners of a tetrahedron.

Saturated Hydrocarbons

Hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds. They are also called alkanes or paraffin hydrocarbons.

Composition Stoichiometry

Descibes the quantitative (mass) relationships among elements in compounds.

Oxidizing Agent

The substance that oxidizes another substance and is reduced.

Radioactivity

The spontaneous disintegration of atomic nuclei.