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Theory that accounts for the bonding and properties of metallic solids.

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Standard Electrodes

Half-cells in which the oxidized and reduced forms of a species are present at unit activity, 1.0M solutions of dissolved ions, 1.0atm partial pressure of gases, and pure solids and liquids.

Oxide

A binary compound of oxygen.

Metal

An element below and to the left of the stepwise division (metalloids) in the upper right corner of the periodic table, about 80% of the known elements are metals.

Electroplating

Plating a metal onto a (cathodic) surface by electrolysis.

Half-Reaction

Either the oxidation part or the reduction part of a redox reaction.

Nonbonding Orbital

A molecular orbital derived only from an atomic orbital of one atom, lends neither stability nor instability to a molecule or ion when populated with electrons.

Nitrogen Cycle

The complex series of reactions by which nitrogen is slowly but continually recycled in the atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere.

 

Radical

An atom or group of atoms that contains one or more unpaired electrons (usually very reactive species)

Homogeneous Mixture

A mixture which has uniform composition and properties throughout.

A brief history of dyeing fabrics

 Dyeing fabrics is giving the fibers a homogeneous color that has a certain degree of strength. The methods of dyeing are very diverse, depending on the properties of the dyes and the dyed fibers.