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The quantity of product formed by the interaction of two or more substances, generally expressed as a percentage of the quantity obtained to that theoretically obtainable.

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Turning iron nail into copper nail

This simple chemical experiment shows the so-called process of copper plating of metal products. Copper has the ability to deposit on a metal surface.

Rate-determining Step

The slowest step in a mechanism, the step that determines the overall rate of reaction.

Endothermic

Describes processes that absorb heat energy.

Dipole

Refers to the separation of charge between two covalently bonded atoms.

Dilution

Process of reducing the concentration of a solute in solution, usually simply by mixing with more solvent.

Oxidation

An algebraic increase in the oxidation number, may correspond to a loss of electrons.

Alcohol

Hydrocarbon derivative containing an --OH group attached to a carbon atom not in an aromatic ring. Alcohols are a class of organic compounds containing the hydroxyl group, OH, attached to a carbon atom.

Electrophile

Positively charged or electron-deficient.

Crystalline Solid

A solid characterized by a regular, ordered arrangement of particles.

Thermodynamics

The study of the energy transfers accompanying physical and chemical processes.