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A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal, the state of a system when neither forward or reverse reaction is thermodynamically favored.

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Artificial Transmutation

An artificially induced nuclear reaction caused by the bombardment of a nucleus with subatomic particiles or small nucei.

Sublimation

The direct vaporization of a sold by heating without passing through the liquid state.

Activity Series

A listing of metals (and hydrogen) in order of decreasing activity.

Eluant or eluent

The solvent used in the process of elution, as in liquid chromatography.

 

Bomb Calorimeter

A device used to measure the heat transfer between system and surroundings at constant volume.

Rate-determining Step

The slowest step in a mechanism, the step that determines the overall rate of reaction.

Ether

Compound in which an oxygen atom is bonded to two alkyl or two aryl groups, or one alkyl and one aryl group.

Nonbonding Orbital

A molecular orbital derived only from an atomic orbital of one atom, lends neither stability nor instability to a molecule or ion when populated with electrons.

Alkaline Battery

A dry cell in which the electrolyte contains KOH.

Enantiomer

One of the two mirror-image forms of an optically active molecule.