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A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal, the state of a system when neither forward or reverse reaction is thermodynamically favored.

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Extensive Property

A property that depends upon the amount of material in a sample.

Law of Conservation of Matter

There is no detectable change in the quantity of matter during an ordinary chemical reaction.

Atomic Radius

Radius of an atom.

yttria

Y2O3: A white, water-insoluble powder, Y2O3, used chiefly in incandescent gas and acetylene mantles.

Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA)

A technique for observing the temperature, direction, and magnitude of thermally induced transitions in a material by heating/cooling a sample and comparing its temperature with that of an inert reference material under similar conditions.

Allotropic Modifications (Allotropes)

Different forms of the same element in the same physical state.

Cis-Trans Isomerism

A type of geometrical isomerism related to the angles between like ligands.

Pairing

A favourable interaction of two electrons with opposite m , values in the same orbital.

Absolute Entropy (of a substance)

The increase in the entropy of a substance as it goes from a perfectly ordered crystalline form at 0 °K (where its entropy is zero) to the temperature in question.

Entropy is a measure of the “dilution” of thermal energy.

Carbonium ion

An orgainic ion carrying a positive charge on a carbon atom.