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A quantity that characterizes the position of equilibrium for a reversible reaction, its magnitude is equal to the mass action expression at equilibrium. K varies with temperature.

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Binary Acid

A binary compound in which H is bonded to one or more of the more electronegative nonmetals.

Reversible Reaction

Reactions that do not go to completion and occur in both the forward and reverse direction.

Diagonal Similarities

Refers to chemical similarities in the Periodic Table of elements of Period 2 to elements of Period 3 one group to the right, especially evident toward the left of the periodic table.

Pairing Energy

Energy required to pair two electrons in the same orbital.

Absolute Entropy (of a substance)

The increase in the entropy of a substance as it goes from a perfectly ordered crystalline form at 0 °K (where its entropy is zero) to the temperature in question.

Entropy is a measure of the “dilution” of thermal energy.


Refers to the separation of charge between two covalently bonded atoms.


Number of moles of solute per litre of solution.

Curie (Ci)

The basic unit used to describe the intensity of radioactivity in a sample of material. One curie equals 37 billion disintegrations per second or approximately the amount of radioactivty given off by 1 gram of radium.


Have you ever noticed that soap bubbles go up in winter and fall down in summer? The reason is that warm air is lighter than cold. And in winter the difference between the air temperature in the room (especially near the windows) and the one you exhale into the bubble is enough to overcome the heaviness of its shell.

Condensed Phases

The liquid and solid phases, phases in which particles interact strongly.