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A quantity that characterizes the position of equilibrium for a reversible reaction, its magnitude is equal to the mass action expression at equilibrium. K varies with temperature.

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Molecular Geometry

The arrangement of atoms (not lone pairs of electrons) around a central atom of a molecule or polyatomic ion.

Fractional Precipitation

Removal of some ions from solution by precipitation while leaving other ions with similar properties in solution.

Lewis Base

Any species that can make available a share in an electron pair.

Mass Number

The sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in an atom, an integer.

Primary Standard

A substance of a known high degree of purity that undergoes one invariable reaction with the other reactant of interest.

xanthate

A salt or ester of xanthic acid. Many xanthates have a yellow color. Xanthates are used as flotation agents in mineral processing.

Critical Temperature

The temperature above which a gas cannot be liquefied, the temperature above which a substance cannot exhibit distinct gas and liquid phases.

Graham's Law

The rates of effusion of gases are inversely proportional to the square roots of their molecular weights or densities.

Evaporization

Vaporization of a liquid below its boiling point.

Reaction Quotient

The mass action expression under any set of conditions (not necessarily equlibrium), its magnitude relative to K determines the direction in which the reaction must occur to establish equilibrium.