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The point at which chemically equivalent amounts of reactants have reacted.

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Buffer Solution

Solution that resists change in pH, contains either a weak acid and a soluble ionic salt of the acid or a weak base and a soluble ionic salt of the base.

Actual Yield

Amount of a specified pure product actually obtained from a given reaction. Compare with Theoretical Yield.

Leveling Effect

Effect by which all acids stronger than the acid that is characteristic of the solvent react with solvent to produce that acid, similar statement applies to bases. The strongest acid (base) that can exist in a given solvent is the acid (base) characteristic of the solvent.

Coordination Number

In describing crystals, the number of nearest neighbours of an atom or ion. The number of donor atoms coordinated to a metal.

Octet Rule

Many representative elements attain at least a share of eight electrons in their valence shells when they form molecular or ionic compounds, there are some limitations.

Ferromagnetism

The ability of a substance to become permanently magnetized by exposure to an external magnetic field.

Manometer

A two-armed barometer.

Metal

An element below and to the left of the stepwise division (metalloids) in the upper right corner of the periodic table, about 80% of the known elements are metals.

Flotation

Method by which hydrophobic (water-repelling) particles of an ore are separated from hydrophilic (water-attracting) particles of a metallurgical pretreatment process.

Melting Point

The temperature at which liquid and solid coexist in equilibrium, also the freezing point.