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The point at which an indicator changes colour and a titration is stopped.

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Evaporation Rate

The rate at which a particular substance will vapourize (evaporate) when compared to the rate of a known substance such as ethyl ether. This term is especially useful for health and fire-hazard considerations.

Saponification

Hydrolysis of esters in the presence of strong soluable bases.

Isotopes

Two or more forms of atoms of the same element with different masses, atoms containing the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.

Carbonium ion

An orgainic ion carrying a positive charge on a carbon atom.

Metathesis Reactions

Reactions in which two compounds react to form two new compounds, with no changes in oxidation number. Reactions in which the ions of two compounds exchange partners.

 

Salt Bridge

A U-shaped tube containing electrolyte, which connects two half-cells of a voltaic cell.

Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

Hydrocarbons that contain double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.

Background Radiation

Ratiation extraneous to an experiment. Usually the low-level natural radiation form cosmic rays and trace radioactive substances present in our environment.

Water Equivalent

The amount of water that would absorb the same amount of heat as the calorimeter per degree temperature increase.

Artificial Transmutation

An artificially induced nuclear reaction caused by the bombardment of a nucleus with subatomic particiles or small nucei.