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The solvent used in the process of elution, as in liquid chromatography.

 

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Inhibitory Catalyst

An inhibitor, a catalyst that decreases the rate of reaction.

Atomic Orbital

Region or volume in space in which the probability of finding electrons is highest.

Nonbonding Orbital

A molecular orbital derived only from an atomic orbital of one atom, lends neither stability nor instability to a molecule or ion when populated with electrons.

Supersaturated Solution

A solution that contains a higher than saturation concentration of solute, slight disturbance or seeding causes crystallization of excess solute.

Photochemical Smog

A brownish smog occurring in urban areas receiving large amounts of sunlight, caused by photochemical (light-induced) reactions among nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons and other components of polluted air that produce photochemical oxidants.

 

Fossil Fuels

Substances consisting largely of hydrocarbons, derived from decay of organic materials under geological conditions of high pressure and temperature (metamorphism) include coal, petroleum, natural gas, peat and oil shale.  For further information see Fuel Chemistry

Boiling Point Elevation

The increase in the boiling point of a solvent caused by the dissolution of a nonvolatile solute.

Entropy

A thermodynamic state or property that measures the degree of disorder or randomness of a system.

Ioniztion

The breaking up of a compound into separate ions.

Frequency

The number of repeating corresponding points on a wave that pass a given observation point per unit time.