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The solvent used in the process of elution, as in liquid chromatography.

 

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Coordination Isomers

Isomers involving exchanges of ligands between complex cation and complex anion of the same compound.

Intermolecular Forces

Forces between individual particles (atoms, molecules, ions) of a substance.

Atomic Number


Integral number of protons in the nucleus, defines the identity of element.
 

Common Ion Effect

Suppression of ionization of a weak electrolyte by the presence in the same solution of a strong electrolyte containing one of the same ions as the weak electrolyte.

Delocalization

Of electrons, refers to bonding electrons that are distributed among more than two atoms that are bonded together, occurs in species that exhibit resonance.
The formation of a set of molecular orbitals that extend over more than two atoms, important in species that valence bond theory describes in terms of resonance.

Half-Reaction

Either the oxidation part or the reduction part of a redox reaction.

Eutrophication

The undesirable overgrowth of vegetation caused by high concentrates of plant nutrients in bodies of water.

Reaction Stoichiometry

Description of the quantitative relationships among substances as they participate in chemical reactions.

Fluorescence

Absorption of high energy radiation by a substance and subsequent emission of visible light.

Optical Isomers

Stereoisomers that differ only by being nonsuperimposable mirror images of each other, like right and left hands, also called enantiomers.

Aufbau ('building up') Principle

Describes the order in which electrons fill orbitals in atoms.

Standard Molar Enthalphy of Formation

The amount of heat absorbed in the formation of one mole of a substance in a specified state from its elements in their standard states.

Hydrate Isomers

Isomers of crystalline complexes that differ in whether water is present inside or outside the coordination sphere.

Valence Electrons

Outermost electrons of atoms, usually those involved in bonding.

Hydration

Reaction of a substance with water.

Explosive

A chemical or compound that causes a sudden, almost instantaneous release or pressure, gas, heat and light when subjected to sudden shock, pressure, high temperature or applied potential.

Foam

Colloidal suspension of a gas in a liquid.

Boyle's Law

At constant temperature the volume occupied by a definite mass of a gas is inversely proportional to the applied pressure.

Suspension

A heterogeneous mixture in which solute-like particles settle out of solvent-like phase some time after their introduction.

Chemical Periodicity

The variations in properties of elements with their position in the periodic table.