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Solvent (or mobile phase) which passes through a chromatographic column and removes the sample components from the stationary phase.

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Reverse Osmosis

Forcing solvent molecules to flow through a semipermable membrane from a concentated solution into a dilute solution by the application of greater hydrostatic pressure on concentrated side than the osmotic pressure opposing it.

Hydrolysis

The reaction of a substance with water or its ions.

Autoionization

An ionization reaction between identical molecules.

Saturated Hydrocarbons

Hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds. They are also called alkanes or paraffin hydrocarbons.

Foam

Colloidal suspension of a gas in a liquid.

Nucleus

The very small, very dense, positively charged center of an atom containing protons and neutrons, as well as other subatomic particles.

Acid Anhydride

Compound produced by dehydration of a carbonic acid. General formula is R--C--O--C--R. Chemical compound that reacts with water to form an acid and are usually oxides of nonmetallic elements.

Thermal Cracking

Decomposition by heating a substance in the presence of a catalyst and in the absence of air.

 

Geometrical Isomers

Compounds with different arrangements of groups on either side of a bond with restricted rotation, such as a double bond or a single bond in a ring, for example cis-trans isomers of certain alkenes. Stereoisomers that are not mirror images of each other, also known as position isomers.

Aufbau ('building up') Principle

Describes the order in which electrons fill orbitals in atoms.