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Solvent (or mobile phase) which passes through a chromatographic column and removes the sample components from the stationary phase.

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Fluorescence

Absorption of high energy radiation by a substance and subsequent emission of visible light.

Magnetic Quantum Number (mc)

Quantum mechanical solution to a wave equation that designates the particular orbital within a given set (s, p, d, f ) in which a electron resides.

Chain Termination Step

The combination of two radicals, which removes the reactive species that propagate the change reaction.

Mass Action Expression

For a reversible reaction, aA + bB cC + dD the product of the concentrations of the products (species on the right), each raised to the power that corresponds to its coefficient in the balanced chemical equation, divided by the product of the concentrations of reactants (species on the left), each raised to the power that corresponds to its coefficient in the balanced chemical equation. At equilibrium the mass action expression is equal to K, at other times it is Q.[C]c[D]d [A]a[B]b = Q, or at equilibrium K.

Clay

A class of silicate and aluminosilicate minerals with sheet-like structures that have enormous surface areas that can absorb large amounts of water.

Boiling Point

The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the applied pressure, also the condensation point

Radioactive Dating

Method of dating ancient objects by determining the ratio of amounts of mother and daughter nuclides present in an object and relating the ratio to the object?s age via half-life calculations.

Wild patina, is it so bad?

Usually this kind of patina appears on monuments. The most striking example is the Statue of Liberty in New York.

Oxidation Numbers

Arbitrary numbers that can be used as mechanical aids in writing formulas and balancing equations, for single- atom ions they correspond to the charge on the ion, more electronegative atoms are assigned negative oxidation numbers (also called Oxidation states).

Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA)

A technique for observing the temperature, direction, and magnitude of thermally induced transitions in a material by heating/cooling a sample and comparing its temperature with that of an inert reference material under similar conditions.