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A substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical means.

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    Probably, every person wants to know, why over time the copper turns green and becomes bloomed. This is easy to explain: that film is called patina.

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    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...

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Binary Acid

A binary compound in which H is bonded to one or more of the more electronegative nonmetals.

Reversible Reaction

Reactions that do not go to completion and occur in both the forward and reverse direction.

Diagonal Similarities

Refers to chemical similarities in the Periodic Table of elements of Period 2 to elements of Period 3 one group to the right, especially evident toward the left of the periodic table.

Pairing Energy

Energy required to pair two electrons in the same orbital.

Absolute Entropy (of a substance)

The increase in the entropy of a substance as it goes from a perfectly ordered crystalline form at 0 °K (where its entropy is zero) to the temperature in question.

Entropy is a measure of the “dilution” of thermal energy.

Dipole

Refers to the separation of charge between two covalently bonded atoms.

Molarity

Number of moles of solute per litre of solution.

Curie (Ci)

The basic unit used to describe the intensity of radioactivity in a sample of material. One curie equals 37 billion disintegrations per second or approximately the amount of radioactivty given off by 1 gram of radium.

Bubbles

Have you ever noticed that soap bubbles go up in winter and fall down in summer? The reason is that warm air is lighter than cold. And in winter the difference between the air temperature in the room (especially near the windows) and the one you exhale into the bubble is enough to overcome the heaviness of its shell.

Condensed Phases

The liquid and solid phases, phases in which particles interact strongly.