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The amount of energy absorbed in the process in which an electron is added to a neutral isolated gaseous atom to form a gaseous ion with a 1- charge, has a negative value if energy is released.

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Associated Ions

Short-lived species formed by the collision of dissolved ions of opposite charges.

Sigma Orbital

Molecular orbital resulting from head-on overlap of two atomic orbitals.

Dissociation Constant

Equilibrium constant that applies to the dissociation of a comples ion into a simple ion and coordinating species (ligands).

Solvent

The dispersing medium of a solution.

Enantiomer

One of the two mirror-image forms of an optically active molecule.

Amine Complexes

Complex species that contain ammonia molecules bonded to metal ions.

Buffer Solution

Solution that resists change in pH, contains either a weak acid and a soluble ionic salt of the acid or a weak base and a soluble ionic salt of the base.

Indicators

For acid-base titrations, organic compounds that exhibit different colors in solutions of different acidities, used to determine the point at which reaction between two solutes is complete.

Antibonding Orbital

A molecular orbital higher in energy than any of the atomic orbitals from which it is derived, lends instability to a molecule or ion when populated with electrons, denoted with a star (*) superscript or symbol.

Linkage Isomers

Isomers in which a particular ligand bonds to a metal ion through different donor atoms.

 

Daughter Nuclide

Nuclide that is produced in a nuclear decay.

 

Donor Atom

A ligand atom whose electrons are shared with a Lewis acid.

Flammable

A liquid as defined by NFPD and DOT as having a flash point below 37.8°C (100°F).

Lewis Acid

Any species that can accept a share in an electron pair.

Lead Storage Battery

Secondary voltaic cell used in most automobiles.

Radiation

High energy particles or rays emitted during the nuclear decay processes.

Crystalline Solid

A solid characterized by a regular, ordered arrangement of particles.

Isomorphous

Refers to crystals having the same atomic arrangement.

Allotropes

Different forms of the same element in the same physical state.

Aufbau ('building up') Principle

Describes the order in which electrons fill orbitals in atoms.