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The amount of energy absorbed in the process in which an electron is added to a neutral isolated gaseous atom to form a gaseous ion with a 1- charge, has a negative value if energy is released.

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xenon trioxide

A colorless, nonvolatile solid, XeO3, explosive when dry: in solution it is called xenic acid.


Discovered : known to ancient civilisations.

Origin : The name comes from the Anglo-Saxon ‘iren’, and the symbol from the Latin ‘ferrum’, meaning iron.
Description :Iron is an enigma - it rusts easily and yet is the most important of all metals, world production exceeds 700 million tons a year. Small amounts of carbon are added to iron to produce steel and when chromium.
is added to this, the result is non-corroding stainless steel (small amounts of nickel may also be added). Iron is also an essential element for all forms of life. The average human contains about 4 grams, much of which circulates as haemoglobin in the blood, the job of which is to carry oxygen from our lungs to where it is needed. If the diet does not contain 10 milligrams a day, anaemia will eventually develop. Foods such as liver, kidney, molasses, brewer’s yeast, cocoa and liquorice contain a lot of iron.
Atomic No:26 Mass No:56

Tyndall Effect

The scattering of light by colloidal particles.

Gamma Ray

High energy electromagnetic radiation. A highly penetrating type of nuclear radiation similar to x-ray radiation, except that it comes from within the nucleus of an atom and has a higher energy. Energywise, very similar to cosmic ray except that cosmic rays originate from outer space.

Lewis Dot Formula (Electron Dot Formula)

Representation of the core of a molecule, ion or formula unit by showing atomic symbols and only outer shell electrons.


A subatomic particle having a mass of 1.0073 amu and a charge of +1, found in thew nuclei of atoms.

First Law of Thermodynamics

The total amount of energy in the universe is constant (also known as the Law of Conservation of Energy) energy is neither created nor destroyed in ordinary chemical reactions and physical changes.

Reversible Reaction

Reactions that do not go to completion and occur in both the forward and reverse direction.


Discovered : at both Berkeley, California, USA, and Dubna, near Moscow, Russia in 1970. Description:A highly radioactive metal which does not occur naturally, and of which only a few atoms have ever been made. It is of research interest only. Origin:The element is named after the Russian town of Dubna.


Positively charged or electron-deficient.