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The amount of energy absorbed in the process in which an electron is added to a neutral isolated gaseous atom to form a gaseous ion with a 1- charge, has a negative value if energy is released.

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Complex Ions

Ions resulting from the formation of coordinate covalent bonds between simple ions and other ions or molecules.

Turning iron nail into copper nail

This simple chemical experiment shows the so-called process of copper plating of metal products. Copper has the ability to deposit on a metal surface.

Standard Molar Enthalphy of Formation

The amount of heat absorbed in the formation of one mole of a substance in a specified state from its elements in their standard states.

Gel

Colloidal suspension of a solid dispersed in a liquid, a semirigid solid.

Aldehyde

Compound in which an alkyl or aryl group and a hydrogen atom are attached to a carbonyl group and a hydrogen atom are attached to a carbonyl group, general formula, O-R-C-H

 

Mass Action Expression

For a reversible reaction, aA + bB cC + dD the product of the concentrations of the products (species on the right), each raised to the power that corresponds to its coefficient in the balanced chemical equation, divided by the product of the concentrations of reactants (species on the left), each raised to the power that corresponds to its coefficient in the balanced chemical equation. At equilibrium the mass action expression is equal to K, at other times it is Q.[C]c[D]d [A]a[B]b = Q, or at equilibrium K.

Polarization

The buildup of a product of oxidation or a reduction of an electrode, preventing further reaction.

Polyprotic Acid

An Acid that can form two or more hydronium ions per molecule, often a least one step of ionization is weak.

Specific Heat

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of substance one degree Celsius.