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The relative order of tendencies for elements and their simple ions to act as oxidizing or reducing agents, also called the activity series.

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Molecular Weight

The mass of one molecule of a nonionic substance in atomic mass units.

Where is ozone used?

Ozone is widely used in various areas of our life. It is used in medicine, in industry, in everyday life.

Percentage Ionization

The percentage of the weak electrolyte that ionizes in a solution of given concentration.

Sigma Orbital

Molecular orbital resulting from head-on overlap of two atomic orbitals.

Voltaic Cells

Electrochemical cells in which spontaneous chemical reactions produce electricity, also called galvanic cells.


Gamma Ray

High energy electromagnetic radiation. A highly penetrating type of nuclear radiation similar to x-ray radiation, except that it comes from within the nucleus of an atom and has a higher energy. Energywise, very similar to cosmic ray except that cosmic rays originate from outer space.


The dispersing medium of a solution.

Hydrophilic Colloids

Colloidal particles that repel water molecules.

Complex Ions

Ions resulting from the formation of coordinate covalent bonds between simple ions and other ions or molecules.

Heat of Vaporization

The amount of heat required to vaporize one gram of a liquid at its boiling point with no change in temperature. Usually expressed in J/g. The molar heat of vaporization is the amount of heat required to vaporize one mole of liquid at its boiling point with no change in temperature and usually expressed ion kJ/mol.