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The relative order of tendencies for elements and their simple ions to act as oxidizing or reducing agents, also called the activity series.

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Bond Energy

The amount of energy necessary to break one mole of bonds of a given kind (in gas phase).The amount of energy necessary to break one mole of bonds in a substance, dissociating the sustance in the gaseous state into atoms of its elements in the gaseous state.

Turning iron nail into copper nail

This simple chemical experiment shows the so-called process of copper plating of metal products. Copper has the ability to deposit on a metal surface.

Greenhouse Effect

Trapping of heat at the surface of the earth by carbon dioxide and water vapour in the atmosphere.

Carbanion

An organic ion carrying a negative charge on a carbon atom.

Hydrogen

Discovered : by Henry Cavendish in 1766.
Isolated in London, UK.
Origin : The name is derived from the Greek ‘hydro genes’, meaning water forming.
Description :A colourless, odourless gas that burns and can form an explosive mixture with air. It is currently manufactured from methane gas, but is also produced by the electrolysis of water and aqueous salts. The gas is used to make such key materials as ammonia, cyclohexane and methanol, which are intermediates in the production of fertilisers, plastics and pharmaceuticals. Some see hydrogen gas as the clean fuel of the future - generated from water and returning to water when it is oxidised. Hydrogen-powered fuel cells are increasingly being seen as pollution-free sources of energy.

Atomic Weight

Weighted average of the masses of the constituent isotopes of an element, The relative masses of atoms of different elements.

Metalloids

Elements with properties intermediate between metals and nonmetals: B, Al, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po, and At.

Paramagnetism

Attraction toward a magnetic field, stronger than diamagnetism, but still weak compared to ferromagnetism.

Frasch Process

Method by which elemental sulfur is mined or extracted. Sulfur is melted with superheated water (at 170°C under high pressure) and forced to the surface of the earth as a slurry.

 

Absolute Entropy (of a substance)

The increase in the entropy of a substance as it goes from a perfectly ordered crystalline form at 0 °K (where its entropy is zero) to the temperature in question.

Entropy is a measure of the “dilution” of thermal energy.