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The relative order of tendencies for elements and their simple ions to act as oxidizing or reducing agents, also called the activity series.

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Hydrate Isomers

Isomers of crystalline complexes that differ in whether water is present inside or outside the coordination sphere.

Composition Stoichiometry

Descibes the quantitative (mass) relationships among elements in compounds.

Voltage

Potential difference between two electrodes, a measure of the chemical potential for a redox reaction to occur.

Detergent

A soap-like emulsifer that contains a sulfate, SO3 or a phosphate group instead of a carboxylate group.

Gamma Ray

High energy electromagnetic radiation. A highly penetrating type of nuclear radiation similar to x-ray radiation, except that it comes from within the nucleus of an atom and has a higher energy. Energywise, very similar to cosmic ray except that cosmic rays originate from outer space.

Alkenes (Olefins)

Unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain one or more carbon-carbon double bonds.

Hydride

A binary compound of hydrogen.

 

yield

The quantity of product formed by the interaction of two or more substances, generally expressed as a percentage of the quantity obtained to that theoretically obtainable.

Optical Activity

The rotation of plane polarized light by one of a pair of optical isomers.

 

Control Rods

Rods of materials such as cadmium or boron steel that act as neutron obsorbers (not merely moderaters) used in nuclear reactors to control neutron fluxes and therfore rates of fission.

Octahedral

A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in the center and six atoms at the corners of a octahedron.

Free Radical

A highly reactive chemical species carrying no charge and having a single unpaired electron in an orbital.

Raoult's Law

The vapor pressure of a solvent in an ideal solution decreases as its mole fraction decreases.

Atomic Orbital

Region or volume in space in which the probability of finding electrons is highest.

Salicylaldehyde

An oily, slightly water-soluble liquid, C7H6O2, having an almondlike odor: used chiefly in perfumery and in the synthesis of coumarin.

Saccharide

An organic compound containing a sugar or sugars.

Heat of Vaporization

The amount of heat required to vaporize one gram of a liquid at its boiling point with no change in temperature. Usually expressed in J/g. The molar heat of vaporization is the amount of heat required to vaporize one mole of liquid at its boiling point with no change in temperature and usually expressed ion kJ/mol.

Ionic Geometry

The arrangement of atoms (not lone pairs of electrons) about the central atom of a polyatomic ion.

Compressed Gas

A gas or mixture of gases having, in a container an absolute pressure exceeding 40 psi at 21.1°C (70°F)

Heterogeneous Catalyst

A catalyst that exists in a different phase (solid, liquid or gas) from the reactants, a contact catalyst.