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The relative order of tendencies for elements and their simple ions to act as oxidizing or reducing agents, also called the activity series.

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Plasma

A physical state of matter which exists at extremely high temperatures in which all molecules are dissociated and most atoms are ionized.

Wild patina, is it so bad?

Usually this kind of patina appears on monuments. The most striking example is the Statue of Liberty in New York.

Kinetic-molecular Theory

A theory, that attempts to explain macroscopic observations on gases in microscopic observations on gases in microscopic observations on gases in microscopic or molecular terms.

Isomorphous

Refers to crystals having the same atomic arrangement.

Absolute Entropy (of a substance)

The increase in the entropy of a substance as it goes from a perfectly ordered crystalline form at 0 °K (where its entropy is zero) to the temperature in question.

Entropy is a measure of the “dilution” of thermal energy.

D-Orbitals

Beginning in the third energy level, aset of five degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s and p orbitals of the same energy level.

 

Mass

A measure of the amount of matter in an object. Mass is usually measured in grams or kilograms.

Primary Voltaic Cells

Voltaic cells that cannot be recharged, no further chemical reaction is possible once the reactants are consumed.

Meniscus

The shape assumed by the surface of a liquid in a cylindrical container.

Disproportionation Reactions

Redox reactions in which the oxidizing agent and the reducing agent are the same species.