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Conduction of electrical current by ions through a solution or pure liquid.

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Solvation

The process by which solvent molecules surround and interact with solute ions or molecules.

Reactants

Substances consumed in a chemical reaction.

Ionization Constant

Equilibrium constant for the ionization of a weak electrolyte.

Mole Fraction

The number of moles of a component of a mixture divided by the total number of moles in the mixture.

 

Addition Reaction

A reaction in which two atoms or groups of atoms are added to a molecule, one on each side of a double or triple bond. Types of addition reaction include electrophilic, nucleophilic (polar) and free radical addition (non-polar).

Cation

A positive ion, an atom or group of atoms that has lost one or more electrons.

Chemical Equation

Description of a chemical reaction by placing the formulas of the reactants on the left and the formulas of products on the right of an arrow.

van der Waals' Equation

An equation of state that extends the ideal gas law to real gases by inclusion of two empirically determined parameters, which are different for different gases.

Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types.

The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The device is based on a complex process of "tunneling" electrons between the material and the tip of a probe.

Inert s-pair Effect

Characteristic of the post-transition minerals, tendency of the outermost s electrons to remain nonionized or un shared in compounds.