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Electrochemical cells in which electrical energy causes nospontaneous redox reactions to occur. An electrochemical cell in which chemical reactions are forced to occur by the application of an outside source of electrical energy.

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Leclanche Cell

A common type of dry cell.

Electrophoresis

A technique for separation of ions by rate and direction of migration in an electric field.

Alkyl Group

A group of atoms derived from an alkane by the removal of one hydrogen atom.

Rate of Reaction

Change in the concentration of a reactant or product per unit time.

Clay

A class of silicate and aluminosilicate minerals with sheet-like structures that have enormous surface areas that can absorb large amounts of water.

Saccharide

An organic compound containing a sugar or sugars.

Gel

Colloidal suspension of a solid dispersed in a liquid, a semirigid solid.

Equation of State

An equation that describes the behavior of matter in a given state, the van der Waals equation describes the behavior of the gaseous state.

Octet Rule

Many representative elements attain at least a share of eight electrons in their valence shells when they form molecular or ionic compounds, there are some limitations.

Base

A substance that produces OH (aq) ions in aqueous solution. Strong soluable bases are soluble in water and are completely dissociated. Weak bases ionize only slightly.