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Electrochemical cells in which electrical energy causes nospontaneous redox reactions to occur. An electrochemical cell in which chemical reactions are forced to occur by the application of an outside source of electrical energy.

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Peroxide

A compound containing oxygen in the -1 oxidation state. Metal peroxides contain the peroxide ion, O22

Conjugated Double Bonds

Double bonds that are separated from each other by one single bond -C=C-C=C-.

Activity of a component of ideal mixture

A dimensionless quantity whose magnitude is: equal to molar concentration in an ideal solution, equal to partial pressure in an ideal gas mixture, and defined as 1 for pure solids or liquids.

Bonding Pair

Pair of electrons involved in a covalent bond.

Nuclear Fission

The process in which a heavy nucleus splits into nuclei of intermediate masses and one or more protons are emitted.

Active Metal

Metal with low ionization energy that loses electrons readily to form cations.

Solvation

The process by which solvent molecules surround and interact with solute ions or molecules.

Osmosis

The process by which solvent molecules pass through a semipermable membrane from a dilute solution into a more concentrated solution.

 

Boron Hydrides

Binary compounds of boron and hydrogen.

Ideal Solution

A solution that obeys Raoult's Law exactly.