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Ordinary batteries (voltaic cells) for flashlights. radios, and so on, many are Leclanche cells.

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Specific Gravity

The ratio of the density of a substance to the density of water.

Amine Complexes

Complex species that contain ammonia molecules bonded to metal ions.

Covalent Compounds

Compounds containing predominantly covalent bonds.

Metal

An element below and to the left of the stepwise division (metalloids) in the upper right corner of the periodic table, about 80% of the known elements are metals.

Molecular Equation

Equation for a chemical reaction in which all formulas are written as if all substances existed as molecules, only complete formulas are used.

Free Energy Change

The indicator of spontaneity of a process at constnt T and P. If delta-G is negative, the process is spontaneous.

Voltage

Potential difference between two electrodes, a measure of the chemical potential for a redox reaction to occur.

Double Salt

Solid consisting of two co-crystallized salts.

 

Nickel-cadmium cell (Nicad battery)

A dry cell in which the anode is Cd, the cathode is NiO2, and the electrolyte is basic.

DP number

The degree of polymerization, the average number of monomer units per polymer unit.