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High energy electromagnetic radiation. A highly penetrating type of nuclear radiation similar to x-ray radiation, except that it comes from within the nucleus of an atom and has a higher energy. Energywise, very similar to cosmic ray except that cosmic rays originate from outer space.

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  • Chemical Safety

    People use chemicals every day for a wide array of purposes, which can include work and house hold duties. Many of us fail to realize that we are actually handling potentially deadly chemicals when we simply clean the bathroom or wash the car. This brings to mind the reason why chemical safety is...

  • Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...

  • What's In Your Beverage? How to Ensure Quality Control with CO2 Analytical Support

    Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry. As these quality standards become...

  • Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis

    In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.

  • Harmful Chemicals Found In Food

    It's getting close to New Years and many people are starting to think about how to lose those extra pounds they managed to gain over the holidays. There are many sorts of diets and fads that have developed over the years from cutting carbs to cutting protein. Everyone has their own opinion as to...



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Third Law of Thermodynamics

The entropy of a hypothetical pure, perfect, crystalline sustance at absolute zero temperature is zero.

Breeder Reactor

A nuclear reactor that produces more fissionable nuclear fuel than it consumes.

Ferromagnetism

The ability of a substance to become permanently magnetized by exposure to an external magnetic field.

Coulomb

Unit of electrical charge.

Oxidizing Agent

The substance that oxidizes another substance and is reduced.

Primary Voltaic Cells

Voltaic cells that cannot be recharged, no further chemical reaction is possible once the reactants are consumed.

Nucleus

The very small, very dense, positively charged center of an atom containing protons and neutrons, as well as other subatomic particles.

Heat Capacity

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a body (of any mass) one degree Celsius.

Distillation

The separation of a liquid mixture into its components on the basis of differences in boiling points. The process in which components of a mixture are separated by boiling away the more volitile liquid.

Mass Spectrometer

An instrument that measures the charge-to-mass ratio of charged particles.

Suspension

A heterogeneous mixture in which solute-like particles settle out of solvent-like phase some time after their introduction.

Copper

Discovered : known to ancient civilisations
Origin : The name is derived from 'Cuprum', the Latin name for Cyprus.

Oxide

A binary compound of oxygen.

Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Benzene and its derivatives.

Allotropes

Different forms of the same element in the same physical state.

Crystal Field Theory

Theory of bonding in transition metal complexes in which ligands and metal ions are treated as point charges, a purely ionic model, ligand point charges represent the crystal (electrical) field perturbing the metal?s d orbitals containing nonbonding electrons.

Formula Unit

The smallest repeating unit of a substance. The molecule for nonionic substances

Helium

Discovered : by Sir William Ramsay in London, and independently by P.T. Cleve and N.A. Langlet in Uppsala, Sweden in 1895.
Origin : The name is derived from the Greek ‘helios’,sun.
Description :A colourless, odourless gas that is totally unreactive. It is extracted from natural gas wells, some of which contain gas that is 7% helium. It is used in deep sea diving for balloons and, as liquid helium, for low temperature research. The Earth’s atmosphere contains 5 parts per million by volume, totalling 400 million tons, but it is not worth extracting it from this source at present.
Atomic No:2 MAss No:4

Viscosity

Resistance offered by the molecules of a liquid to flow is termed as viscosity.

Foam

Colloidal suspension of a gas in a liquid.