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A salt or ester of xanthic acid. Many xanthates have a yellow color. Xanthates are used as flotation agents in mineral processing.

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Critical Pressure

The pressure required to liquefy a gas (vapor) at its critical temperature.

Accuracy

How closely a measured value agrees with the correct value.

Absolute Zero

The zero point on the absolute temperature scale, -273.15°C or 0 K, theoretically, the temperature at which molecular motion ceases. The concept of an absolute zero temperature was first deduced from experiments with gases. When a fixed volume of gas is cooled, its pressure decreases with its temperature. Absolute zero physically possesses quantum mechanical zero-point energy.

Energy

The capacity to do work or transfer heat.

Haber Process

A process for the catalyzed industrial production of ammonia from N2 and H2 at high temperature and pressure.

Born-Haber Cycle

A series of reactions (and accompanying enthalpy changes) which, when summed, represents the hypothetical one-step reaction by which elements in their standard states are converted into crystals of ionic compounds (and the accompanying enthalpy changes.)

Condensed Phases

The liquid and solid phases, phases in which particles interact strongly.

Double Salt

Solid consisting of two co-crystallized salts.

 

Acid Anhydride

Compound produced by dehydration of a carbonic acid. General formula is R--C--O--C--R. Chemical compound that reacts with water to form an acid and are usually oxides of nonmetallic elements.

Carcinogen

A substance capable of causing or producing cancer in mammals.