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A salt or ester of xanthic acid. Many xanthates have a yellow color. Xanthates are used as flotation agents in mineral processing.

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Heat of Solution

The amount of heat absorbed in the formation of solution that contains one mole of solute, the value is positive if heat is absorbed (endothermic) and negative if heat is released (exothermic).

Phosphoric Acid

H3P04, Colorless liquid or rhombic crystals, decomposes before it will boil. Used mostly in the metal etchant. Used in cleaning operations to remove encrusted surface matter and mineral scale found on metal equipment such as boilers and steam producing equipment. Also used to brighten metals and remove rust.

Absorption Spectrum

Spectrum associated with absorption of electromagnetic radiation by atoms (or other species) resulting from transitions from lower to higher energy states. An absorption spectrum is the inverse of an emission spectrum.

Solute

The dispersed (dissolved) phase of a solution.

Conjugated Double Bonds

Double bonds that are separated from each other by one single bond -C=C-C=C-.

Chemical Kinetics

The study of rates and mechanisms of chemical reactions and of the factors on which they depend.

Alkali Metals

Metals of Group IA (Na, K, Rb).

Catalyst

A substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without being consumed itself in the reaction.
A substance that alters (usually increases) the rate at which a reaction occurs.

Percent Purity

The percent of a specified compound or element in an impure sample.

Molar Solubility

Number of moles of a solute that dissolve to produce a litre of saturated solution.