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Electrolytic cell for the commercial electrolysis of molten sodium chloride. For further information see Electrochemistry or Fuel Cells.

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Metal

An element below and to the left of the stepwise division (metalloids) in the upper right corner of the periodic table, about 80% of the known elements are metals.

Thermonuclear Energy

The energy stored in the nucleus of an atom and released through fission, fusion, or radioactivity. In these processes a small amount of mass is converted to energy according to the relationship E = mc2, where E is energy, m is mass, and c is the speed of light.

Bronsted-Lowry Base

A proton acceptor

Coulomb

Unit of electrical charge.

Cohesive Forces

All the forces of attraction among particles of a liquid.

Intermolecular Forces

Forces between individual particles (atoms, molecules, ions) of a substance.

xylic acid

Any of six colorless, crystalline, isomeric acids having the formula C9H10O2, derived from xylene.

Octet Rule

Many representative elements attain at least a share of eight electrons in their valence shells when they form molecular or ionic compounds, there are some limitations.

Enzyme

A protein that acts as a catalyst in biological systems.

Nodal Plane

A region in which the probability of finding an electron is zero.

 

Element

A substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical means.

Dipole-dipole Interactions

Attractive interactions between polar molecules, that is, between molecules with permanent dipoles.

Positron

A Nuclear particle with the mass of an electron but opposite charge.

Insoluble Compound

A very slightly soluble compound.

Cathodic Protection

Protection of a metal (making ir a cathode) against corrosion by attaching it to a sacrifical anode of a more easily oxidized metal.

Standard Reaction

A reaction in which the numbers of moles of reactants shown in the balanced equation, all in their standard states, are completely converted to the numbers of moles of products shown in the balanced equation, also sall at their standard state.

Potential Energy

Energy that matter possesses by virtue of its position, condition or composition.

Low Spin Complex

Crystal field designation for an inner orbital complex, contains electrons paired t2g orbitals before eg orbitals are occupied in octahedral complexes.

Cloud Chamber

A device for observing the paths of speeding particiles as vapor molecules condense on them to form foglike tracks.

Hydrate Isomers

Isomers of crystalline complexes that differ in whether water is present inside or outside the coordination sphere.