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Electrolytic cell for the commercial electrolysis of molten sodium chloride. For further information see Electrochemistry or Fuel Cells.

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Law of Conservation of Matter

There is no detectable change in the quantity of matter during an ordinary chemical reaction.

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Absorption Spectrum

Spectrum associated with absorption of electromagnetic radiation by atoms (or other species) resulting from transitions from lower to higher energy states. An absorption spectrum is the inverse of an emission spectrum.

Flotation

Method by which hydrophobic (water-repelling) particles of an ore are separated from hydrophilic (water-attracting) particles of a metallurgical pretreatment process.

Hydrogen-Oxygen Fuel Cell

Fuel cell in which hydrogen is the fuel (reducing agent) and oxygen is the oxidizing agent.

 

Curie (Ci)

The basic unit used to describe the intensity of radioactivity in a sample of material. One curie equals 37 billion disintegrations per second or approximately the amount of radioactivty given off by 1 gram of radium.

Coordinate Covalent Bond

A covalent bond in which both shared electrons are donated by the same atom, a bond between a Lewis base and a Lewis acid.

Bond Energy

The amount of energy necessary to break one mole of bonds of a given kind (in gas phase).The amount of energy necessary to break one mole of bonds in a substance, dissociating the sustance in the gaseous state into atoms of its elements in the gaseous state.

Radical

An atom or group of atoms that contains one or more unpaired electrons (usually very reactive species)

Primary Voltaic Cells

Voltaic cells that cannot be recharged, no further chemical reaction is possible once the reactants are consumed.