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Electrolytic cell for the commercial electrolysis of molten sodium chloride. For further information see Electrochemistry or Fuel Cells.

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Effective Collisons

Collision between molecules resulting in a reaction, one in which the molecules collide with proper relative orientations and sufficient energy to react.

 

Covalent Bond

Chemical bond formed by the sharing of one or more electron pairs between two atoms.

Ionic Compounds

Compounds containing predominantly ionic bonding.

Reverse Osmosis

Forcing solvent molecules to flow through a semipermable membrane from a concentated solution into a dilute solution by the application of greater hydrostatic pressure on concentrated side than the osmotic pressure opposing it.

Hydrometer

A device used to measure the densities of liquids and solutions.

Periodic Table

An arrangement of elements in order of increasing atomic numbers that also emphasizes periodicity.

Ideal Gas Law

The product of pressure and the volume of an ideal gas is directly proportional to the number of moles of the gas and the absolute temperature.

Vapor Pressure

The particle pressure of a vapor at the surface of its parent liquid.

Spectator Ions

Ions in a solution that do not participate in a chemical reaction.

Combustible

Classification of liquid substances that will burn on the basis of flash points. A combustible liquid means any liquid having a flash point at or above 37.8°C (100°F) but below 93.3°C (200°F), except any mixture having components with flash points of 93.3°C (200°F) or higher, the total of which makes up 99 percent or more of the total volume of the mixture.