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An artificially induced nuclear reaction caused by the bombardment of a nucleus with subatomic particiles or small nucei.

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Mass Deficiency

The amount of matter that would be converted into energy if an atom were formed from constituent particles.

Mole Fraction

The number of moles of a component of a mixture divided by the total number of moles in the mixture.

 

Heat Capacity

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a body (of any mass) one degree Celsius.

Nitrogenases

A class of enzymes found in bacteria within root nodules in some plants, which catalyze reactions by which N2 molecules from the air are converted to ammonia.

 

Film badge

A small patch of photographic film worn on clothing to detect and measure accumulated incident ionizing radiation.

Ionic Bonding

Chemical bonding resulting from the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom or a group of atoms to another.

Precipitate

An insoluble solid formed by mixing in solution the constituent ions of a slightly soluble solution.

London Forces

Very weak and very short-range attractive forces between short-lived temporary (induced) dipoles, also called dispersion Forces.

Essential Oil

A plant extract that has a distinctive odour or flavour.

Percent by Mass

100% times the actual yield divided by theoretical yield.