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Integral number of protons in the nucleus, defines the identity of element.
 

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    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...

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    One of the most interesting and obvious chemical experiments is the experiment on the interaction of copper sulfate and calcium carbonate. The latter is contained in the shell of a simple egg, but copper sulphate should be searched in a chemical reagent store. This experience is simple, but...

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    Probably, every person wants to know, why over time the copper turns green and becomes bloomed. This is easy to explain: that film is called patina.



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Cation

A positive ion, an atom or group of atoms that has lost one or more electrons.

Periodic Law

The properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers.

Ion Product for Water

Equilibrium constant for the ionization of water, Kw = [H3O+][OH-] =1.00 x 10-14 at 25 °C.

Element

A substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical means.

Boron Hydrides

Binary compounds of boron and hydrogen.

Polarimeter

A device used to measure optical activity.

Alpha (a) Particle

Helium ion with 2+ charge, an assembly of two protons and two neutrons.

Explosive

A chemical or compound that causes a sudden, almost instantaneous release or pressure, gas, heat and light when subjected to sudden shock, pressure, high temperature or applied potential.

Enzyme

A protein that acts as a catalyst in biological systems.

Lone Pair

Pair of electrons residing on one atom and not shared by other atoms, unshared pair.