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Integral number of protons in the nucleus, defines the identity of element.

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Alpha (a) Particle

Helium ion with 2+ charge, an assembly of two protons and two neutrons.


The breaking up of a compound into separate ions.

Binding Energy (nuclear binding energy)

The energy equivalent (E = mc^2) of the mass deficiency of an atom.  where: E = is the energy in joules, m is the mass in kilograms, and c is the speed of light in m/s^2

Supercritical Fluid

A substance at temperature above its critical temperature.

van der Waals' Equation

An equation of state that extends the ideal gas law to real gases by inclusion of two empirically determined parameters, which are different for different gases.

Polar Bond

Covalent bond in which there is an unsymmetrical distribution of electron density.


An atom or a group of atoms that carries an electric charge.

Standard Reaction

A reaction in which the numbers of moles of reactants shown in the balanced equation, all in their standard states, are completely converted to the numbers of moles of products shown in the balanced equation, also sall at their standard state.

Raoult's Law

The vapor pressure of a solvent in an ideal solution decreases as its mole fraction decreases.

Lewis Acid

Any species that can accept a share in an electron pair.