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Covalent bond resulting from the sharing of four electrons (two pairs) between two atoms.

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Lanthanide Contraction

A decrease in the radii of the elements following the lanthanides compared to what would be expected if there were no f-transition metals.

Contact Process

Industrial process by which sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid are produced from sulfur dioxide.

Electrolyte

A substance whose aqueous solutions conduct electricity.

 

Allotropes

Different forms of the same element in the same physical state.

Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA)

A technique for observing the temperature, direction, and magnitude of thermally induced transitions in a material by heating/cooling a sample and comparing its temperature with that of an inert reference material under similar conditions.

Photochemical Smog

A brownish smog occurring in urban areas receiving large amounts of sunlight, caused by photochemical (light-induced) reactions among nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons and other components of polluted air that produce photochemical oxidants.

 

Polarization

The buildup of a product of oxidation or a reduction of an electrode, preventing further reaction.

Dipole-dipole Interactions

Attractive interactions between polar molecules, that is, between molecules with permanent dipoles.

Limiting Reactant

Substance that stoichiometrically limits the amount of product(s) that can be formed.

Equilibrium or Chemical Equilibrium

A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal, the state of a system when neither forward or reverse reaction is thermodynamically favored.