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Covalent bond resulting from the sharing of four electrons (two pairs) between two atoms.

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Semipermable Membrane

A thin partition between two solutions through which certain molecules can pass but others cannot.

Hydrate Isomers

Isomers of crystalline complexes that differ in whether water is present inside or outside the coordination sphere.

Flammable

A liquid as defined by NFPD and DOT as having a flash point below 37.8°C (100°F).

Chemical Equilibrium

A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal, there is no net change in concentrations of reactants or products while a system is at equilibrium.

Creating Malachite egg

One of the most interesting and obvious chemical experiments is the experiment on the interaction of copper sulfate and calcium carbonate. The latter is contained in the shell of a simple egg, but copper sulphate should be searched in a chemical reagent store. This experience is simple, but effective and visual, and as a result we will get something beautiful.

Overlap

The interaction of orbitals on different atoms in the same region of space.

Conformations

Structures of a compound that differ by the extent of rotation about a single bond.

Quantum Numbers

Numbers that describe the energies of electrons in atoms, derived from quantum mechanical treatment.

Photochemical Oxidants

Photochemically produced oxidizing agents capable of causing damage to plants and animals.

Combination Reaction

Reaction in which two substances (elements or compounds) combine to form one compound.