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Covalent bond resulting from the sharing of four electrons (two pairs) between two atoms.

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xenon tetrafluoride

A colorless, crystalline compound, XeF4, prepared by heating a gaseous mixture of fluorine and xenon.

Faraday's Law of Electrolysis

One equivalent weight of a substance is produced at each electrode during the passage of 96,487 coulombs of charge through an electrolytic cell.

Halogens

Group VIIA elements: F, Cl, Br, I

Ionic Geometry

The arrangement of atoms (not lone pairs of electrons) about the central atom of a polyatomic ion.

Leveling Effect

Effect by which all acids stronger than the acid that is characteristic of the solvent react with solvent to produce that acid, similar statement applies to bases. The strongest acid (base) that can exist in a given solvent is the acid (base) characteristic of the solvent.

Gamma Ray

High energy electromagnetic radiation. A highly penetrating type of nuclear radiation similar to x-ray radiation, except that it comes from within the nucleus of an atom and has a higher energy. Energywise, very similar to cosmic ray except that cosmic rays originate from outer space.

Handmade crystal glass as a work of art

In order for the colored crystal to open in all its beauty and sparkle with every face natural light is required. Handmade crystal glass has specific tactile and aesthetic properties - it is pleasant to touch, it seems to radiate heat. To appreciate the quality and beauty of such things, of course, it is not enough to look at the picture.

Polarimeter

A device used to measure optical activity.

Absolute Zero

The zero point on the absolute temperature scale, -273.15°C or 0 K, theoretically, the temperature at which molecular motion ceases. The concept of an absolute zero temperature was first deduced from experiments with gases. When a fixed volume of gas is cooled, its pressure decreases with its temperature. Absolute zero physically possesses quantum mechanical zero-point energy.

Bond Order

Half the numbers of electrons in bonding orbitals minus half the number of electrons in antibonding orbitals. Bond order gives an indication to the stability of a bond. Also defined as the difference between the number of bonding electrons and antibonding electrons divided by two.