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Covalent bond resulting from the sharing of four electrons (two pairs) between two atoms.

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Bond Order

Half the numbers of electrons in bonding orbitals minus half the number of electrons in antibonding orbitals. Bond order gives an indication to the stability of a bond. Also defined as the difference between the number of bonding electrons and antibonding electrons divided by two.

Heat

A form of energy that flows between two samples of matter because of their differences in temperature.

Dissociation Constant

Equilibrium constant that applies to the dissociation of a comples ion into a simple ion and coordinating species (ligands).

Oxidation-reduction Reactions

Reactions in which oxidation and reduction occur, also called redox reactions.

Freezing Point Depression

The decrease in the freezing point of a solvent caused by the presence of a solute.ing Point

Thermonuclear Energy

The energy stored in the nucleus of an atom and released through fission, fusion, or radioactivity. In these processes a small amount of mass is converted to energy according to the relationship E = mc2, where E is energy, m is mass, and c is the speed of light.

Ideal Solution

A solution that obeys Raoult's Law exactly.

Radioactivity

The spontaneous disintegration of atomic nuclei.

Actinides

Elements 89 to 103 (between lawrencium and actinium) on the periodic table. Only the first four have been found in nature in appreciable amounts. The remainder have been produced synthetically.

Neutron

A neutral subatomic particle having a mass of 1.0087 amu.