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Covalent bond resulting from the sharing of four electrons (two pairs) between two atoms.

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Activation Energy

Amount of energy that must be absorbed by reactants in their ground states to reach the transition state so that a reaction can occur. In other words, activation energy is the minimum energy required for a chemical reaction to occur.

Amide

Compound containing the O-C-N group.Compound that can be considered a derivative of ammonia in which one or more hydrogens are replaced by a alkyl or aryl groups.

 

Hydride

A binary compound of hydrogen.

 

Saponification

Hydrolysis of esters in the presence of strong soluable bases.

Oxidation

An algebraic increase in the oxidation number, may correspond to a loss of electrons.

Ideal Gas Law

The product of pressure and the volume of an ideal gas is directly proportional to the number of moles of the gas and the absolute temperature.

Electrolyte

A substance whose aqueous solutions conduct electricity.

 

Radioactive Tracer

A small amount of radioisotope replacing a nonradioactive isotope of the element in a compound whose path (for example, in the body) or whose decomposition products are to be monitored by detection of radioctivity, also called a radioactive label.

Metal

An element below and to the left of the stepwise division (metalloids) in the upper right corner of the periodic table, about 80% of the known elements are metals.

Low Spin Complex

Crystal field designation for an inner orbital complex, contains electrons paired t2g orbitals before eg orbitals are occupied in octahedral complexes.

Activity Series

A listing of metals (and hydrogen) in order of decreasing activity.

Organic Chemistry

The chemistry of substances that contain carbon-hydrogen bonds.

Differential Thermometer

A thermometer used for accurate measurement of very small changes in temperature.

Effective Nuclear Charge

The nuclear charge experienced by the outermost electrons of an atom, the actual nuclear charge minus the effects of shielding due to inner-shell electrons.
Example: Set of dx2-y2 and dz2 orbitals, those d orbitals within a set with lobes directed along the x-, y-, and z-axes.

Homogeneous Equilibria

Equilibria involving only one species in a single phase. For example, all gases, all liquids or all solids.

Faraday's Law of Electrolysis

One equivalent weight of a substance is produced at each electrode during the passage of 96,487 coulombs of charge through an electrolytic cell.

Nuclear Reaction

Involves a change in the composition of a nucleus and can evolve or absorb an extraordinarily large amount of energy.

Dumas Method

A method used to determine the molecular weights of volatile liquids.

Equilibrium Constant

A quantity that characterizes the position of equilibrium for a reversible reaction, its magnitude is equal to the mass action expression at equilibrium. K varies with temperature.

Density

Density is the ratio b/w Mass and Volume: D=M/V