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A small, calibrated electroscope worn by laboratory personnel and designated to detect and measure incident ionizing radiation or chemical exposure.

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  • What are Compound Microscopes?

    Most of the microscopes used today are compound. A compound microscope features two or more lenses. A hollow cylinder called the tube connects the two lenses. The top lens, the one people look through, is called the eyepiece. The bottom lens is known as the objective lens. Below the two lenses is...

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    Diamonds are still a girl's best friend, right? We love the shiny gems. They are the most popular rocks sold today. But what exactly are they, anyway? Where do they come from? What else are they used for?

  • Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...

  • What's In Your Beverage? How to Ensure Quality Control with CO2 Analytical Support

    Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry. As these quality standards become...

  • Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis

    In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.

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Extensive Property

A property that depends upon the amount of material in a sample.

Compressed Gas

A gas or mixture of gases having, in a container an absolute pressure exceeding 40 psi at 21.1°C (70°F)

Activation Energy

Amount of energy that must be absorbed by reactants in their ground states to reach the transition state so that a reaction can occur. In other words, activation energy is the minimum energy required for a chemical reaction to occur.

Metallic Conduction

Conduction of electrical current through a metal or along a metallic surface.

Energy

The capacity to do work or transfer heat.

Square Planar

A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in the center and four atoms at the corners of a square.

Effective Molality

The sum of the molalities of all solute particles in a solution.

Fractional Distillation

The process in which a fractioning column is used in distillation apparatus to separate components of a liquid mixture that have different boiling points.

Beta Particle

Electron emitted from the nucleus when a neuton decays to a proton and an electron.

Le Chatelier's Principle

States that a system at equilibrium, or striving to attain equilibrium, responds in such a way as to counteract any stress placed upon it.
If a stress (change of conditions) is applied to a system at equilibrium, the system shifts in the direction that reduces stress.

Hybridization

Mixing a set of atomic orbitals to form a new set of atomic orbitals with the same total electron capacity and with properties and energies intermediate between those of the original unhybridized orbitals.

Polymerization

The combination of many small molecules to form large molecules.

Integrated Rate Equation

An equation giving the concentration of a reactant remaining after a specified time, has different mathematical form for different orders of reactants.

Atomic Weight

Weighted average of the masses of the constituent isotopes of an element, The relative masses of atoms of different elements.

Calorimeter

A device used to measure the heat transfer between system and surroundings.

Ionization

In aqueous solution, the process in which a molecular compound reacts with water and forms ions.

Titration

A Procedure in which one solution is added to another solution until the chemical reaction between the two solutes is complete, the concentration of one solution is known and that of the other is unknown.

 

Quantum Mechanics

Mathematical method of treating particles on the basis of quantum theory, which assumes that energy (of small particles) is not infinitely divisible.

Clay

A class of silicate and aluminosilicate minerals with sheet-like structures that have enormous surface areas that can absorb large amounts of water.

Amine Complexes

Complex species that contain ammonia molecules bonded to metal ions.