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A cluster of atoms in a ferromagnetic substance, all of which align in the same direction in the presence of an external magnetic field.

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Complex Ions

Ions resulting from the formation of coordinate covalent bonds between simple ions and other ions or molecules.

Adhesive Forces

Forces of attraction between a liquid and another surface.

Melting Point

The temperature at which liquid and solid coexist in equilibrium, also the freezing point.

Saturated Solution

Solution in which no more solute will dissolve.

Joule

A unit of energy in the SI system. One joule is 1 kg. m2/s2 which is also 0.2390 calorie.

Reaction Quotient

The mass action expression under any set of conditions (not necessarily equlibrium), its magnitude relative to K determines the direction in which the reaction must occur to establish equilibrium.

Oxidation

An algebraic increase in the oxidation number, may correspond to a loss of electrons.

Crystal Lattice

A pattern of arrangement of particles in a crystal.

Fractional Precipitation

Removal of some ions from solution by precipitation while leaving other ions with similar properties in solution.

Forbidden Zone

A relatively large energy separation between an insulator's highest filled electron energy band and the next higher energy vacant band. Beginning in the fourth energy level, a set of seven degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s, p, and d orbitals of the same energy level.