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The separation of a liquid mixture into its components on the basis of differences in boiling points. The process in which components of a mixture are separated by boiling away the more volitile liquid.

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Equivalence Point

The point at which chemically equivalent amounts of reactants have reacted.

Ionization

In aqueous solution, the process in which a molecular compound reacts with water and forms ions.

Calorie

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water from 14.5°C to 15.5°C. 1 calorie = 4.184 joules.

Ketone

Compound in which a carbonyl group is bound to two alkyl or two aryl groups, or to one alkyl and one aryl group.

xanthate

A salt or ester of xanthic acid. Many xanthates have a yellow color. Xanthates are used as flotation agents in mineral processing.

Isotopes

Two or more forms of atoms of the same element with different masses, atoms containing the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.

Molar Solubility

Number of moles of a solute that dissolve to produce a litre of saturated solution.

Silicones

Polymeric organosilicon compounds, contain individual or cross-linked Si-O chains or rings in which some oxygens of SiO4 tetrahedra are replaced by other groups.

Heterogeneous Mixture

A mixture that does not have uniform composition and properties throughout.

Ore

A natural deposit containing a mineral of an element to be extracted.