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The separation of a liquid mixture into its components on the basis of differences in boiling points. The process in which components of a mixture are separated by boiling away the more volitile liquid.

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Double Bond

Covalent bond resulting from the sharing of four electrons (two pairs) between two atoms.

Tetrahedral

A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in center and four atoms at the corners of a tetrahedron.

Semipermable Membrane

A thin partition between two solutions through which certain molecules can pass but others cannot.

Catalyst

A substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without being consumed itself in the reaction.
A substance that alters (usually increases) the rate at which a reaction occurs.

Intermolecular Forces

Forces between individual particles (atoms, molecules, ions) of a substance.

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Active Metal

Metal with low ionization energy that loses electrons readily to form cations.

Bubbles

Have you ever noticed that soap bubbles go up in winter and fall down in summer? The reason is that warm air is lighter than cold. And in winter the difference between the air temperature in the room (especially near the windows) and the one you exhale into the bubble is enough to overcome the heaviness of its shell.

Dissociation

In aqueous solution, the process in which a solid ionic compound separates into its ions.

Equation of State

An equation that describes the behavior of matter in a given state, the van der Waals equation describes the behavior of the gaseous state.