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The material in a distillation apparatus that is collected in the receiver.

 

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Binary Acid

A binary compound in which H is bonded to one or more of the more electronegative nonmetals.

Acid Anhydride

Compound produced by dehydration of a carbonic acid. General formula is R--C--O--C--R. Chemical compound that reacts with water to form an acid and are usually oxides of nonmetallic elements.

Ion

An atom or a group of atoms that carries an electric charge.

Photon

A packet of light or electromagnetic radiation, also called quantum of light.

 

Sublimation

The direct vaporization of a sold by heating without passing through the liquid state.

Activation Energy

Amount of energy that must be absorbed by reactants in their ground states to reach the transition state so that a reaction can occur. In other words, activation energy is the minimum energy required for a chemical reaction to occur.

Galvanizing

Placing a thin layer of zinc on a ferrous material to protect the underlying surface from corrosion.

 

Equilibrium or Chemical Equilibrium

A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal, the state of a system when neither forward or reverse reaction is thermodynamically favored.

Nitrogenases

A class of enzymes found in bacteria within root nodules in some plants, which catalyze reactions by which N2 molecules from the air are converted to ammonia.

 

Electrolytic Cells

Electrochemical cells in which electrical energy causes nospontaneous redox reactions to occur. An electrochemical cell in which chemical reactions are forced to occur by the application of an outside source of electrical energy.