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The material in a distillation apparatus that is collected in the receiver.

 

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Percent by Mass

100% times the actual yield divided by theoretical yield.

Photochemical Oxidants

Photochemically produced oxidizing agents capable of causing damage to plants and animals.

Common Ion Effect

Suppression of ionization of a weak electrolyte by the presence in the same solution of a strong electrolyte containing one of the same ions as the weak electrolyte.

Radiation

High energy particles or rays emitted during the nuclear decay processes.

Frasch Process

Method by which elemental sulfur is mined or extracted. Sulfur is melted with superheated water (at 170°C under high pressure) and forced to the surface of the earth as a slurry.

 

Dispersed Phase

The solute-like species in a colloid.

Salt Bridge

A U-shaped tube containing electrolyte, which connects two half-cells of a voltaic cell.

Periodicity

Regular periodic variations of properties of elements with atomic number (and position in the periodic table).

yttrium

A rare trivalent metallic element, found in gadolinite and other minerals. Symbol: Y, at. wt.: 88.905, at. no.: 39, sp. gr.: 4.47. Cf."rare-earth element."

Yttrium has a silver-metallic luster and is relatively stable in air unless finely divided. Turnings of the metal, however, ignite in air if their temperature exceeds 400oC. Yttrium oxide is one of the most important compounds of yttrium and accounts for the largest use. It is widely used in making YVO4 europium, and Y2O3 europium phosphors to give the red color in color television tubes.

Spectrochemical Series

Arrangement of ligands in order of increasing ligand field strength.