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The material in a distillation apparatus that is to be distilled.

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Reversible Reaction

Reactions that do not go to completion and occur in both the forward and reverse direction.

Substitution Reaction

A reaction in which an atom or a group of atoms is replaced by another atom or group of atoms.

Electron Deficient Compounds

Compounds that contain at least one atom (other than H) that shares fewer than eight electrons.

Reaction Ratio

The relative amounts of reactants and products involved in a reaction, maybe the ratio of moles. millimoles, or masses.

 

Quantum Numbers

Numbers that describe the energies of electrons in atoms, derived from quantum mechanical treatment.

Donor Atom

A ligand atom whose electrons are shared with a Lewis acid.

Electrodes

Surfaces upon which oxidation and reduction half-reactions, occur in electrochemical cells.

Half-Life

The time required for half of a reactant to be converted into product(s). The time required for half of a given sample to undergo radioactive decay.

Metallic Conduction

Conduction of electrical current through a metal or along a metallic surface.

Osmosis

The process by which solvent molecules pass through a semipermable membrane from a dilute solution into a more concentrated solution.