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The material in a distillation apparatus that is to be distilled.

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Alpha (a) Particle

Helium ion with 2+ charge, an assembly of two protons and two neutrons.

Electron

A subatomic particle having a mass of 0.00054858 amu and a charge of 1-.

Electrolyte

A substance whose aqueous solutions conduct electricity.

 

Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types.

The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The device is based on a complex process of "tunneling" electrons between the material and the tip of a probe.

Spectrochemical Series

Arrangement of ligands in order of increasing ligand field strength.

Boiling Point

The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the applied pressure, also the condensation point

Activity Series

A listing of metals (and hydrogen) in order of decreasing activity.

Ionic Bonding

Chemical bonding resulting from the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom or a group of atoms to another.

Emulsion

Colloidal suspension of a liquid in a liquid.

Chemical Kinetics

The study of rates and mechanisms of chemical reactions and of the factors on which they depend.