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The material in a distillation apparatus that is to be distilled.

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A measure of the amount of matter in an object. Mass is usually measured in grams or kilograms.

Chemical Hygiene Officer (CHO)

A person or employee who is qualified by training or experience to provide technical guidance in the development and implementations of the provisions of a Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP)

Ionic Geometry

The arrangement of atoms (not lone pairs of electrons) about the central atom of a polyatomic ion.


Plating a metal onto a (cathodic) surface by electrolysis.

Avogadro's Law

At the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes of all gases contain the same number of molecules.


The absorption of heat by a system as the process occurs.

Condensed Phases

The liquid and solid phases, phases in which particles interact strongly.

Hydrophilic Colloids

Colloidal particles that repel water molecules.


Process of reducing the concentration of a solute in solution, usually simply by mixing with more solvent.

Chain Termination Step

The combination of two radicals, which removes the reactive species that propagate the change reaction.