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The material in a distillation apparatus that is to be distilled.

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Rate-determining Step

The slowest step in a mechanism, the step that determines the overall rate of reaction.

Alkynes

Unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds.

Dipole-dipole Interactions

Attractive interactions between polar molecules, that is, between molecules with permanent dipoles.

Background Radiation

Ratiation extraneous to an experiment. Usually the low-level natural radiation form cosmic rays and trace radioactive substances present in our environment.

Metalloids

Elements with properties intermediate between metals and nonmetals: B, Al, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po, and At.

Vapor Pressure

The particle pressure of a vapor at the surface of its parent liquid.

Percentage Ionization

The percentage of the weak electrolyte that ionizes in a solution of given concentration.

Dry Cells

Ordinary batteries (voltaic cells) for flashlights. radios, and so on, many are Leclanche cells.

Saturated Hydrocarbons

Hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds. They are also called alkanes or paraffin hydrocarbons.

Nitrogen Cycle

The complex series of reactions by which nitrogen is slowly but continually recycled in the atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere.