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The material in a distillation apparatus that is to be distilled.

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Binary Acid

A binary compound in which H is bonded to one or more of the more electronegative nonmetals.

Precipitate

An insoluble solid formed by mixing in solution the constituent ions of a slightly soluble solution.

Emission Spectrum

Spectrum associated with emission of electromagnetic radiation by atoms (or other species) resulting from electronic transitions from higher to lower energy states.

 

Critical Pressure

The pressure required to liquefy a gas (vapor) at its critical temperature.

Three ways to make patina at home

The first way is ammonia patination. To do this, take a plastic container. Put a couple of paper or ordinary towels at the bottom. Moisten them with ammonia. Then sprinkle with large table salt.

Supersaturated Solution

A solution that contains a higher than saturation concentration of solute, slight disturbance or seeding causes crystallization of excess solute.

Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)

A technique for measuring the temperature, direction, and magnitude of thermal transitions in a sample material by heating/cooling and comparing the amount of energy required to maintain its rate of temperature increase or decrease with an inert reference material under similar conditions.

Ion Product for Water

Equilibrium constant for the ionization of water, Kw = [H3O+][OH-] =1.00 x 10-14 at 25 °C.

Exothermic

Describes processes that release heat energy.

Boron Hydrides

Binary compounds of boron and hydrogen.