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The product of the distance separating opposite charges of equal magnitude of the charge, a measure of the polarity of a bond or molecule, a measured dipole moment refers to the dipole moment of an entire molecule.

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Reverse Osmosis

Forcing solvent molecules to flow through a semipermable membrane from a concentated solution into a dilute solution by the application of greater hydrostatic pressure on concentrated side than the osmotic pressure opposing it.

Ionization Constant

Equilibrium constant for the ionization of a weak electrolyte.


Compound in which an oxygen atom is bonded to two alkyl or two aryl groups, or one alkyl and one aryl group.

Liquid Aerosol

Colloidal suspension of liquid in gas.

Background Radiation

Ratiation extraneous to an experiment. Usually the low-level natural radiation form cosmic rays and trace radioactive substances present in our environment.


Process that occurs in electrolytic cells.

Open Sextet

Refers to species that have only six electrons in the highest energy level of the central element (many Lewis acids).

Water Equivalent

The amount of water that would absorb the same amount of heat as the calorimeter per degree temperature increase.

Partial Pressure

The pressure exerted by one gas in a mixture of gases.


A salt or ester of salicylic acid.