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The product of the distance separating opposite charges of equal magnitude of the charge, a measure of the polarity of a bond or molecule, a measured dipole moment refers to the dipole moment of an entire molecule.

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Excited State

Any state other than the ground state of an atom or molecule.

Physical Change

A change in which a substance changes from one physical state to another but no substances with different composition are formed. Example Gas to Liquid - Solid.

 

Half-Cell

Compartment in which the oxidation or reduction half-reaction occurs in a voltaic cell.

Coordination Compound or Complex

A compound containing coordinate covalent bonds.

Absolute Entropy (of a substance)

The increase in the entropy of a substance as it goes from a perfectly ordered crystalline form at 0 °K (where its entropy is zero) to the temperature in question.

Entropy is a measure of the “dilution” of thermal energy.

Second Law of Thermodynamics

The universe tends toward a state of greater diorder in spontaneous processes.

pH

Negative logarithm of the concentration (mol/L) of the H3O+[H+] ion, scale is commonly used over a range 0 to 14.

Half-Life

The time required for half of a reactant to be converted into product(s). The time required for half of a given sample to undergo radioactive decay.

Gamma Ray

High energy electromagnetic radiation. A highly penetrating type of nuclear radiation similar to x-ray radiation, except that it comes from within the nucleus of an atom and has a higher energy. Energywise, very similar to cosmic ray except that cosmic rays originate from outer space.

Electron Configuration

Specific distribution of electrons in atomic orbitals of atoms or ions.

Denaturation

A process pertaining to a change in structure of a protein form regular to irregular arrangement of the polypeptide chains.

Henry's Law

The pressure of the gas above a solution is proportional to the concentration of the gas in the solution.

Binding Energy (nuclear binding energy)

The energy equivalent (E = mc^2) of the mass deficiency of an atom.  where: E = is the energy in joules, m is the mass in kilograms, and c is the speed of light in m/s^2

Nuclear Fission

The process in which a heavy nucleus splits into nuclei of intermediate masses and one or more protons are emitted.

ytterbium

A rare metallic element found in gadolinite and forming compounds resembling those of yttrium. Symbol: Yb, at. wt.: 173.04, at. no.: 70, sp. gr.: 6.96. Cf."rare-earth element."

 

Aldehyde

Compound in which an alkyl or aryl group and a hydrogen atom are attached to a carbonyl group and a hydrogen atom are attached to a carbonyl group, general formula, O-R-C-H

 

Lone Pair

Pair of electrons residing on one atom and not shared by other atoms, unshared pair.

Octane Number

A number that indicates how smoothly a gasoline burns.

Enthalpy

The heat content of a specific amount of substance, defined as E= PV.

Conjugated Double Bonds

Double bonds that are separated from each other by one single bond -C=C-C=C-.