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The product of the distance separating opposite charges of equal magnitude of the charge, a measure of the polarity of a bond or molecule, a measured dipole moment refers to the dipole moment of an entire molecule.

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Cyclotron

A device for accelerating charged particles along a spiral path.

Nuclear Fission

The process in which a heavy nucleus splits into nuclei of intermediate masses and one or more protons are emitted.

Sigma Orbital

Molecular orbital resulting from head-on overlap of two atomic orbitals.

Transition State Theory

Theory of reaction rates that states that reactants pass through high-energy transition states before forming products.

Dissociation Constant

Equilibrium constant that applies to the dissociation of a comples ion into a simple ion and coordinating species (ligands).

Ozone

We breathe 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, consuming about 25 kg of air every day. It turns out that we practically predetermine our health by the air we breathe.

Spectator Ions

Ions in a solution that do not participate in a chemical reaction.

Linkage Isomers

Isomers in which a particular ligand bonds to a metal ion through different donor atoms.

 

Central Atom

An atom in a molecule or polyatomic ion that is bonded to more than one other atom.

Forbidden Zone

A relatively large energy separation between an insulator's highest filled electron energy band and the next higher energy vacant band. Beginning in the fourth energy level, a set of seven degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s, p, and d orbitals of the same energy level.