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Molecule formed by combination of two smaller (identical) molecules.

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Free Radical

A highly reactive chemical species carrying no charge and having a single unpaired electron in an orbital.

Square Planar Complex

Complex in which the metal is in the center of a square plane, with ligand donor atoms at each of the four corners.

Cyclotron

A device for accelerating charged particles along a spiral path.

Half-Life

The time required for half of a reactant to be converted into product(s). The time required for half of a given sample to undergo radioactive decay.

Forbidden Zone

A relatively large energy separation between an insulator's highest filled electron energy band and the next higher energy vacant band. Beginning in the fourth energy level, a set of seven degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s, p, and d orbitals of the same energy level.

Avogadro's Number

The number (6.022x10^23) of atoms, molecules or particles found in exactly 1 mole of substance.

Lanthanides

Elements 58 to 71 (after lanthanum).

Saccharic acid

A white, needlelike, crystalline, water-soluble solid or syrup, C6H10O8, usually made by the oxidation of cane sugar, glucose, or starch by nitric acid. Also called "Glucaric acid."

Crystalline Solid

A solid characterized by a regular, ordered arrangement of particles.

Freezing Point Depression

The decrease in the freezing point of a solvent caused by the presence of a solute.ing Point