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Attractive interactions between polar molecules, that is, between molecules with permanent dipoles.

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Alpha (a) Particle

Helium ion with 2+ charge, an assembly of two protons and two neutrons.

Absorption Spectrum

Spectrum associated with absorption of electromagnetic radiation by atoms (or other species) resulting from transitions from lower to higher energy states. An absorption spectrum is the inverse of an emission spectrum.

Atomic Mass Unit (amu)

One twelfth of a mass of an atom of the carbon-12 isotope, a unit used for stating atomic and formula weights, also called dalton.

Distillation

The separation of a liquid mixture into its components on the basis of differences in boiling points. The process in which components of a mixture are separated by boiling away the more volitile liquid.

Integrated Rate Equation

An equation giving the concentration of a reactant remaining after a specified time, has different mathematical form for different orders of reactants.

Dissociation Constant

Equilibrium constant that applies to the dissociation of a comples ion into a simple ion and coordinating species (ligands).

Canal Ray

Stream of positively charged particles (cations) that moves toward the negative electrode in cathode ray tubes, observed to pass through canals in the negative electrode.

Potential Energy

Energy that matter possesses by virtue of its position, condition or composition.

Spectator Ions

Ions in a solution that do not participate in a chemical reaction.

Limiting Reactant

Substance that stoichiometrically limits the amount of product(s) that can be formed.