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Process of reducing the concentration of a solute in solution, usually simply by mixing with more solvent.

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Ionization Constant

Equilibrium constant for the ionization of a weak electrolyte.

Denatured

A commercial term used to describe ethanol that has been rendered unfit for human consumption because of the addition of harmful ingredients to make it sales tax-expempt.

 

Common Ion Effect

Suppression of ionization of a weak electrolyte by the presence in the same solution of a strong electrolyte containing one of the same ions as the weak electrolyte.

Alums

Hydrated sulfates of the general formula M+M3+(SO4)2.12H2).

Absolute Entropy (of a substance)

The increase in the entropy of a substance as it goes from a perfectly ordered crystalline form at 0 °K (where its entropy is zero) to the temperature in question.

Entropy is a measure of the “dilution” of thermal energy.

Differential Thermometer

A thermometer used for accurate measurement of very small changes in temperature.

Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

Hydrocarbons that contain double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.

Sublimation

The direct vaporization of a sold by heating without passing through the liquid state.

Plasma

A physical state of matter which exists at extremely high temperatures in which all molecules are dissociated and most atoms are ionized.

Octet Rule

Many representative elements attain at least a share of eight electrons in their valence shells when they form molecular or ionic compounds, there are some limitations.