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Electrochemical cells in which spontaneous chemical reactions produce electricity, also called galvanic cells.

 

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yield

The quantity of product formed by the interaction of two or more substances, generally expressed as a percentage of the quantity obtained to that theoretically obtainable.

Saccharate

A compound formed by interaction of sucrose with a metallic oxide, usually lime, and useful in the purification of sugar.

 

Coulomb

Unit of electrical charge.

Complex Ions

Ions resulting from the formation of coordinate covalent bonds between simple ions and other ions or molecules.

Salicylate

A salt or ester of salicylic acid.

Adsorption

Adhesion of a species onto the surfaces of particles.

Square Planar

A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in the center and four atoms at the corners of a square.

Ligand

A Lewis base in a coordination compound.

Weak Field Ligand

A Ligand that exerts a weak crystal or ligand field and ge- nerally forms high spin complexes with metals.

Hydrate Isomers

Isomers of crystalline complexes that differ in whether water is present inside or outside the coordination sphere.

Isomorphous

Refers to crystals having the same atomic arrangement.

Enzyme

A protein that acts as a catalyst in biological systems.

Bonding Orbital

A molecular orbit lower in energy than any of the atomic orbitals from which it is derived, lends stability to a molecule or ion when populated with electron.

Alkali Metals

Metals of Group IA (Na, K, Rb).

Absorption Spectrum

Spectrum associated with absorption of electromagnetic radiation by atoms (or other species) resulting from transitions from lower to higher energy states. An absorption spectrum is the inverse of an emission spectrum.

Primary Standard

A substance of a known high degree of purity that undergoes one invariable reaction with the other reactant of interest.

Vapor Pressure

The particle pressure of a vapor at the surface of its parent liquid.

Ionization

In aqueous solution, the process in which a molecular compound reacts with water and forms ions.

Heat of Crystallization

The amount of heat that must be removed from one gram of a liquid at its freezing point to freeze it with no change in temperature.

Intermolecular Forces

Forces between individual particles (atoms, molecules, ions) of a substance.