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Electrochemical cells in which spontaneous chemical reactions produce electricity, also called galvanic cells.

 

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Calorie

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water from 14.5°C to 15.5°C. 1 calorie = 4.184 joules.

Specific Heat

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of substance one degree Celsius.

Thermodynamics

The study of the energy transfers accompanying physical and chemical processes.

Radical

An atom or group of atoms that contains one or more unpaired electrons (usually very reactive species)

Osmosis

The process by which solvent molecules pass through a semipermable membrane from a dilute solution into a more concentrated solution.

 

Actinides

Elements 89 to 103 (between lawrencium and actinium) on the periodic table. Only the first four have been found in nature in appreciable amounts. The remainder have been produced synthetically.

Band of Stability

Band containing nonradioactive nuclides in a plot of number of neutrons versus atomic number.

Electrodes

Surfaces upon which oxidation and reduction half-reactions, occur in electrochemical cells.

Flotation

Method by which hydrophobic (water-repelling) particles of an ore are separated from hydrophilic (water-attracting) particles of a metallurgical pretreatment process.

Extrapolate

To estimate the value of a result outside the range of a series of known values. Technique used in standard additions calibration procedure.