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Electrochemical cells in which spontaneous chemical reactions produce electricity, also called galvanic cells.

 

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Carbonium ion

An orgainic ion carrying a positive charge on a carbon atom.

Dipole-dipole Interactions

Attractive interactions between polar molecules, that is, between molecules with permanent dipoles.

Polydentate

Refers to ligands with more than one donor atom.

Heat of Condensation

The amount of heat that must be removed from one gram of a vapor at it's condensation point to condense the vapour with no change in temperature.

Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types.

The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The device is based on a complex process of "tunneling" electrons between the material and the tip of a probe.

Strong Field Ligand

Ligand that exerts a strong crystal or ligand electrical field and generally forms low spin complexes with metal ions when possible.

Salt and its use in everyday life

Cooking salt is a product that is available in every kitchen, and it’s not as simple as it seems. The history of this product shows that it was valued like gold.

Sublimation

The direct vaporization of a sold by heating without passing through the liquid state.

Supercritical Fluid

A substance at temperature above its critical temperature.

Mass

A measure of the amount of matter in an object. Mass is usually measured in grams or kilograms.