Electrochemical cells in which spontaneous chemical reactions produce electricity, also called galvanic cells.
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Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry. As these quality standards become...
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Diamonds are still a girl's best friend, right? We love the shiny gems. They are the most popular rocks sold today. But what exactly are they, anyway? Where do they come from? What else are they used for?
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People use chemicals every day for a wide array of purposes, which can include work and house hold duties. Many of us fail to realize that we are actually handling potentially deadly chemicals when we simply clean the bathroom or wash the car. This brings to mind the reason why chemical safety is...
- Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope
The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...
- Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis
In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.
The undesirable overgrowth of vegetation caused by high concentrates of plant nutrients in bodies of water.
D -Transition elements (metals)
B Group elements except IIB in the periodic table, sometimes called simply transition elements EX. Fe, Ni, Cu, Ti .
For further information see Metals.
Any species that can make available a share in an electron pair.
Isomers in which a particular ligand bonds to a metal ion through different donor atoms.
The concept in which two or more equivalent dot formulas for the same arrangement of atoms (resonance structures) are necessary to describe the bonding in a molecule or ion.
An equilibrium in which processes occur continuously, with no net change. When two (or more) processes occur at the same rate so that no net change occurs.
A reaction in which two atoms or groups of atoms are added to a molecule, one on each side of a double or triple bond. Types of addition reaction include electrophilic, nucleophilic (polar) and free radical addition (non-polar).
Covalent bond in which electron density is symmetrically distributed.
The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of substance one degree Celsius.
A molecular orbital higher in energy than any of the atomic orbitals from which it is derived, lends instability to a molecule or ion when populated with electrons, denoted with a star (*) superscript or symbol.
Total Ionic Equation
Equation for a chemical reaction written to show the predominant form of all species in aqueous solution or in contact with water.
Rate of Reaction
Change in the concentration of a reactant or product per unit time.
The arrangement of atoms (not lone pairs of electrons) about the central atom of a polyatomic ion.
A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal, there is no net change in concentrations of reactants or products while a system is at equilibrium.
Atomic Mass Unit (amu)
One twelfth of a mass of an atom of the carbon-12 isotope, a unit used for stating atomic and formula weights, also called dalton.
Mathematical method of treating particles on the basis of quantum theory, which assumes that energy (of small particles) is not infinitely divisible.
The separation of a liquid mixture into its components on the basis of differences in boiling points. The process in which components of a mixture are separated by boiling away the more volitile liquid.
A device used for accelerating charged particles along a straight line path.
Pair of electrons residing on one atom and not shared by other atoms, unshared pair.
Short-lived species formed by the collision of dissolved ions of opposite charges.