The unit used to express dipole moments.
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The vapor pressure of a solvent in an ideal solution decreases as its mole fraction decreases.
Any state other than the ground state of an atom or molecule.
A highly reactive chemical species carrying no charge and having a single unpaired electron in an orbital.
The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of substance one degree Celsius.
Maximum amount of a specified product that could be obtained from specified amounts of reactants, assuming complete consumption of limiting reactant according to only one reaction and complete recovery of product.
Alkaline Earth Metals
Group IIA metals
The amount of energy absorbed in the process in which an electron is added to a neutral isolated gaseous atom to form a gaseous ion with a 1- charge, has a negative value if energy is released.
A substance whose aqueous solutions do not conduct electricity.
At constant pressure the volume occupied by a definite mass of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature.
Effective Nuclear Charge
The nuclear charge experienced by the outermost electrons of an atom, the actual nuclear charge minus the effects of shielding due to inner-shell electrons.
Example: Set of dx2-y2 and dz2 orbitals, those d orbitals within a set with lobes directed along the x-, y-, and z-axes.
Liquids that, when cooled, apparently solidify but actually continue to flow very slowly under the influence of gravity e.g glass.
Consisting of only one element.
The rotation of plane polarized light by one of a pair of optical isomers.
Numbers that describe the energies of electrons in atoms, derived from quantum mechanical treatment.
A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in center and four atoms at the corners of a tetrahedron.
Stream of positively charged particles (cations) that moves toward the negative electrode in cathode ray tubes, observed to pass through canals in the negative electrode.
An organic ion carrying a negative charge on a carbon atom.
Mathematical method of treating particles on the basis of quantum theory, which assumes that energy (of small particles) is not infinitely divisible.
High energy particles or rays emitted during the nuclear decay processes.
Description of the quantitative relationships among substances as they participate in chemical reactions.