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The unit used to express dipole moments.

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Raoult's Law

The vapor pressure of a solvent in an ideal solution decreases as its mole fraction decreases.

Excited State

Any state other than the ground state of an atom or molecule.

Free Radical

A highly reactive chemical species carrying no charge and having a single unpaired electron in an orbital.

Specific Heat

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of substance one degree Celsius.

Theoretical Yield

Maximum amount of a specified product that could be obtained from specified amounts of reactants, assuming complete consumption of limiting reactant according to only one reaction and complete recovery of product.

Alkaline Earth Metals

Group IIA metals

Electron Affinity

The amount of energy absorbed in the process in which an electron is added to a neutral isolated gaseous atom to form a gaseous ion with a 1- charge, has a negative value if energy is released.

Nonelectrolyte

A substance whose aqueous solutions do not conduct electricity.

Charle's Law

At constant pressure the volume occupied by a definite mass of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature.

Effective Nuclear Charge

The nuclear charge experienced by the outermost electrons of an atom, the actual nuclear charge minus the effects of shielding due to inner-shell electrons.
Example: Set of dx2-y2 and dz2 orbitals, those d orbitals within a set with lobes directed along the x-, y-, and z-axes.

Supercooled Liquids

Liquids that, when cooled, apparently solidify but actually continue to flow very slowly under the influence of gravity e.g glass.

Homonuclear

Consisting of only one element.

Optical Activity

The rotation of plane polarized light by one of a pair of optical isomers.

 

Quantum Numbers

Numbers that describe the energies of electrons in atoms, derived from quantum mechanical treatment.

Tetrahedral

A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in center and four atoms at the corners of a tetrahedron.

Canal Ray

Stream of positively charged particles (cations) that moves toward the negative electrode in cathode ray tubes, observed to pass through canals in the negative electrode.

Carbanion

An organic ion carrying a negative charge on a carbon atom.

Quantum Mechanics

Mathematical method of treating particles on the basis of quantum theory, which assumes that energy (of small particles) is not infinitely divisible.

Radiation

High energy particles or rays emitted during the nuclear decay processes.

Reaction Stoichiometry

Description of the quantitative relationships among substances as they participate in chemical reactions.