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Number of moles of a solute that dissolve to produce a litre of saturated solution.

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Miscibility

The ability of one liquid to mix with (dissolve in) another liquid.

Ether

Compound in which an oxygen atom is bonded to two alkyl or two aryl groups, or one alkyl and one aryl group.

Critical Point

The combination of critical temperature and critical pressure of a substance.

Semipermable Membrane

A thin partition between two solutions through which certain molecules can pass but others cannot.

Absolute Entropy (of a substance)

The increase in the entropy of a substance as it goes from a perfectly ordered crystalline form at 0 °K (where its entropy is zero) to the temperature in question.

Entropy is a measure of the “dilution” of thermal energy.

Solubility Product Principle

The solubility product constant expression for a slightly soluble compound is the product of the concentrations of the constituent ions, each raised to the power that corresponds to the number of ions in one formula unit.

Alums

Hydrated sulfates of the general formula M+M3+(SO4)2.12H2).

Capillary Action

The drawing of a liquid up the inside of a small-bore tube when adhesive forces exceed cohesive forces, or the depression of the surface of the liquid when cohesive forces exceed the adhesive forces.

Periodic Law

The properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers.

Free Energy Change

The indicator of spontaneity of a process at constnt T and P. If delta-G is negative, the process is spontaneous.