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Description of a chemical reaction by placing the formulas of the reactants on the left and the formulas of products on the right of an arrow.

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Polymorphous

Refers to substances that crystallize in more than one crystalline arrangement.

Boiling Point Elevation

The increase in the boiling point of a solvent caused by the dissolution of a nonvolatile solute.

Polar Bond

Covalent bond in which there is an unsymmetrical distribution of electron density.

Nickel-cadmium cell (Nicad battery)

A dry cell in which the anode is Cd, the cathode is NiO2, and the electrolyte is basic.

Gangue

Sand, rock, and other impurities surrounding the mineral of interest in an ore.

Condensed States

The solid and liquid states.

Standard Electrodes

Half-cells in which the oxidized and reduced forms of a species are present at unit activity, 1.0M solutions of dissolved ions, 1.0atm partial pressure of gases, and pure solids and liquids.

Formula Unit

The smallest repeating unit of a substance. The molecule for nonionic substances

Amino Acid

Compound containing both an amino and a carboxylic acid group.The --NH2 group.

Effective Molality

The sum of the molalities of all solute particles in a solution.