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Potential difference between two electrodes, a measure of the chemical potential for a redox reaction to occur.

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Rate-law Expression

Equation relating the rate of a reaction to the concentrations of the reactants and the specific rate of the constant.

Colligative Properties

Physical properties of solutions that depend upon the number but not the kind of solute particles present.

Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Benzene and its derivatives.

Theoretical Yield

Maximum amount of a specified product that could be obtained from specified amounts of reactants, assuming complete consumption of limiting reactant according to only one reaction and complete recovery of product.

Optical Activity

The rotation of plane polarized light by one of a pair of optical isomers.

 

Excited State

Any state other than the ground state of an atom or molecule.

Absolute Entropy (of a substance)

The increase in the entropy of a substance as it goes from a perfectly ordered crystalline form at 0 °K (where its entropy is zero) to the temperature in question.

Entropy is a measure of the “dilution” of thermal energy.

Active Metal

Metal with low ionization energy that loses electrons readily to form cations.

Solute

The dispersed (dissolved) phase of a solution.

Homonuclear

Consisting of only one element.