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Potential difference between two electrodes, a measure of the chemical potential for a redox reaction to occur.

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Resonance

The concept in which two or more equivalent dot formulas for the same arrangement of atoms (resonance structures) are necessary to describe the bonding in a molecule or ion.

Half-Life

The time required for half of a reactant to be converted into product(s). The time required for half of a given sample to undergo radioactive decay.

Ionic Bonding

Chemical bonding resulting from the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom or a group of atoms to another.

Nitrogen Cycle

The complex series of reactions by which nitrogen is slowly but continually recycled in the atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere.

 

Freezing Point Depression

The decrease in the freezing point of a solvent caused by the presence of a solute.ing Point

Electrolytic Conduction

Conduction of electrical current by ions through a solution or pure liquid.

Group

A vertical column in the periodic table, also called a family.

Sigma Orbital

Molecular orbital resulting from head-on overlap of two atomic orbitals.

Reaction Ratio

The relative amounts of reactants and products involved in a reaction, maybe the ratio of moles. millimoles, or masses.

 

Electrode Potentials

Potentials, E, of half-reactions as reductions versus the standard hydrogen electrode.