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Two methyl groups of the same carbon atom.

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Molecular Orbital Theory

A theory of chemical bonding based upon the postulated existence of molecular orbitals.

Fractional Precipitation

Removal of some ions from solution by precipitation while leaving other ions with similar properties in solution.

Molecular Orbital

An orbit resulting from overlap and mixing of atomic orbitals on different atoms. An MO belongs to the molecule as a whole.

Mass Deficiency

The amount of matter that would be converted into energy if an atom were formed from constituent particles.

Manometer

A two-armed barometer.

xylic acid

Any of six colorless, crystalline, isomeric acids having the formula C9H10O2, derived from xylene.

Joule

A unit of energy in the SI system. One joule is 1 kg. m2/s2 which is also 0.2390 calorie.

Chemical Equilibrium

A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal, there is no net change in concentrations of reactants or products while a system is at equilibrium.

Molecular Weight

The mass of one molecule of a nonionic substance in atomic mass units.

Endothermicity

The absorption of heat by a system as the process occurs.

Atomic Orbital

Region or volume in space in which the probability of finding electrons is highest.

Complex Ions

Ions resulting from the formation of coordinate covalent bonds between simple ions and other ions or molecules.

Carcinogen

A substance capable of causing or producing cancer in mammals.

 

Mass Spectrometer

An instrument that measures the charge-to-mass ratio of charged particles.

Electromagnetic Radiation

Energy that is propagated by means of electric and magnetic fields that oscillate in directions perpendicular to the direction of travel of the energy.

Alkylbenzene

A compound containing an alkyl group bonded to a benzene ring.

Square Planar

A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in the center and four atoms at the corners of a square.

Photochemical Smog

A brownish smog occurring in urban areas receiving large amounts of sunlight, caused by photochemical (light-induced) reactions among nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons and other components of polluted air that produce photochemical oxidants.

 

Lanthanides

Elements 58 to 71 (after lanthanum).

Thermonuclear Energy

The energy stored in the nucleus of an atom and released through fission, fusion, or radioactivity. In these processes a small amount of mass is converted to energy according to the relationship E = mc2, where E is energy, m is mass, and c is the speed of light.