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Two methyl groups of the same carbon atom.

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Ideal Solution

A solution that obeys Raoult's Law exactly.

Differential Thermometer

A thermometer used for accurate measurement of very small changes in temperature.

Effective Molality

The sum of the molalities of all solute particles in a solution.

Phase Diagram

Diagram that shows equilibrium temperature-pressure relationships for different phases of a substance.

Molecular Geometry

The arrangement of atoms (not lone pairs of electrons) around a central atom of a molecule or polyatomic ion.

Ion Product for Water

Equilibrium constant for the ionization of water, Kw = [H3O+][OH-] =1.00 x 10-14 at 25 °C.

Periodic Table of Elements

An arrangement of elements in order of increasing atomic numbers that also emphasizes periodicity.

Fossil Fuels

Substances consisting largely of hydrocarbons, derived from decay of organic materials under geological conditions of high pressure and temperature (metamorphism) include coal, petroleum, natural gas, peat and oil shale.  For further information see Fuel Chemistry

Amorphous Solid

A noncrystalline solid with no well-defined ordered structure.

Percent by Mass

100% times the actual yield divided by theoretical yield.