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Description of the quantitative relationships among elements and compounds as they undergo chemical changes.

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Paramagnetism

Attraction toward a magnetic field, stronger than diamagnetism, but still weak compared to ferromagnetism.

Boyle's Law

At constant temperature the volume occupied by a definite mass of a gas is inversely proportional to the applied pressure.

Nucleus

The very small, very dense, positively charged center of an atom containing protons and neutrons, as well as other subatomic particles.

Conjugated Double Bonds

Double bonds that are separated from each other by one single bond -C=C-C=C-.

Free Radical

A highly reactive chemical species carrying no charge and having a single unpaired electron in an orbital.

Heat Capacity

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a body (of any mass) one degree Celsius.

Homogeneous Mixture

A mixture which has uniform composition and properties throughout.

Effective Nuclear Charge

The nuclear charge experienced by the outermost electrons of an atom, the actual nuclear charge minus the effects of shielding due to inner-shell electrons.
Example: Set of dx2-y2 and dz2 orbitals, those d orbitals within a set with lobes directed along the x-, y-, and z-axes.

Ionic Bonding

Chemical bonding resulting from the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom or a group of atoms to another.

Molecular Formula

Formula that indicates the actual number of atoms present in a molecule of a molecular substance.