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Description of the quantitative relationships among elements and compounds as they undergo chemical changes.

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Lone Pair

Pair of electrons residing on one atom and not shared by other atoms, unshared pair.

Line Spectrum

An atomic emission or absorption spectrum.

Isomorphous

Refers to crystals having the same atomic arrangement.

Donor Atom

A ligand atom whose electrons are shared with a Lewis acid.

Covalent Bond

Chemical bond formed by the sharing of one or more electron pairs between two atoms.

Band

A series of very closely spaced, nearly continuous molecular orbitals that belong to the crystal as a whole.

Absolute Zero

The zero point on the absolute temperature scale, -273.15°C or 0 K, theoretically, the temperature at which molecular motion ceases. The concept of an absolute zero temperature was first deduced from experiments with gases. When a fixed volume of gas is cooled, its pressure decreases with its temperature. Absolute zero physically possesses quantum mechanical zero-point energy.

Ionic Bonding

Chemical bonding resulting from the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom or a group of atoms to another.

Water Equivalent

The amount of water that would absorb the same amount of heat as the calorimeter per degree temperature increase.

Alkenes (Olefins)

Unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain one or more carbon-carbon double bonds.