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Description of the quantitative relationships among elements and compounds as they undergo chemical changes.

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Supercritical Fluid

A substance at temperature above its critical temperature.

xylidine

Any of six isomeric compounds that have the formula C8H11N, are derivatives of xylene, and resemble aniline: used in dye manufacture.

Turning iron nail into copper nail

This simple chemical experiment shows the so-called process of copper plating of metal products. Copper has the ability to deposit on a metal surface.

Half-Cell

Compartment in which the oxidation or reduction half-reaction occurs in a voltaic cell.

First Law of Thermodynamics

The total amount of energy in the universe is constant (also known as the Law of Conservation of Energy) energy is neither created nor destroyed in ordinary chemical reactions and physical changes.

Crystal Field Stabilization Energy

A measure of the net energy of stabilization gained by a metal ion's nonbonding d electrons as a result of complex formation.

Heat of Crystallization

The amount of heat that must be removed from one gram of a liquid at its freezing point to freeze it with no change in temperature.

Limiting Reactant

Substance that stoichiometrically limits the amount of product(s) that can be formed.

Compound

A substance of two or more elements in fixed proportions. Compounds can be decomposed into their constituent elements.

Reversible Reaction

Reactions that do not go to completion and occur in both the forward and reverse direction.