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Description of the quantitative relationships among elements and compounds as they undergo chemical changes.

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Formal Charge

A method of counting electrons in a covalently bonded molecule or ion, counts bonding electrons as though they were equally shared between the two atoms.

Faraday

One faraday of electricity corresponds to the charge on 6.022 x 1023 electrons, or 96,487.301 coulombs.

Insulator

Poor electric and heat conductor.

Thermodynamics

The study of the energy transfers accompanying physical and chemical processes.

History of diamonds

Diamond has been known for about 5 thousand years. Historians suggest that it was first discovered in India in river placers. It has long been credited with magical properties, and the largest famous crystals and products from them are shrouded in a halo of mystical legends.

History of fireworks

There is an assumption that the history of fireworks started in China, about 2000 years ago. It is possible that the Chinese accidentally discovered explosions by burning bamboo canes.

Surface Tension

It is the force in dynes acting along the surface of the liquid 1cm in length and perpendicular to it.

Nucleons

Particles comprising the nucleus, protons and neutrons.

Primary Standard

A substance of a known high degree of purity that undergoes one invariable reaction with the other reactant of interest.

Endothermicity

The absorption of heat by a system as the process occurs.