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Description of the quantitative relationships among elements and compounds as they undergo chemical changes.

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Hydrate

A solid compound that contains a definite percentage of bound water.

Graham's Law

The rates of effusion of gases are inversely proportional to the square roots of their molecular weights or densities.

Gas of rotten eggs

If you happen to break a rotten egg, then you know the smell of hydrogen sulfide, because the stench of the spoiled egg depends on of its presence in rotting protein substances.

Three ways to make patina at home

The first way is ammonia patination. To do this, take a plastic container. Put a couple of paper or ordinary towels at the bottom. Moisten them with ammonia. Then sprinkle with large table salt.

Alkali Metals

Metals of Group IA (Na, K, Rb).

Metathesis Reactions

Reactions in which two compounds react to form two new compounds, with no changes in oxidation number. Reactions in which the ions of two compounds exchange partners.

 

Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)

A technique for measuring the temperature, direction, and magnitude of thermal transitions in a sample material by heating/cooling and comparing the amount of energy required to maintain its rate of temperature increase or decrease with an inert reference material under similar conditions.

xenon hexafluoride

A colorless, crystalline compound, XeF6, that melts at 50°C to a yellow liquid, and boils at 75°C.

Ferromagnetism

The ability of a substance to become permanently magnetized by exposure to an external magnetic field.

yttrium

A rare trivalent metallic element, found in gadolinite and other minerals. Symbol: Y, at. wt.: 88.905, at. no.: 39, sp. gr.: 4.47. Cf."rare-earth element."

Yttrium has a silver-metallic luster and is relatively stable in air unless finely divided. Turnings of the metal, however, ignite in air if their temperature exceeds 400oC. Yttrium oxide is one of the most important compounds of yttrium and accounts for the largest use. It is widely used in making YVO4 europium, and Y2O3 europium phosphors to give the red color in color television tubes.