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A U-shaped tube containing electrolyte, which connects two half-cells of a voltaic cell.

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Ionization Isomers

Isomers that result from the interchange of ions inside and outside the coordination sphere.

Atomic Mass Unit (amu)

One twelfth of a mass of an atom of the carbon-12 isotope, a unit used for stating atomic and formula weights, also called dalton.

Dissociation

In aqueous solution, the process in which a solid ionic compound separates into its ions.

Beta Particle

Electron emitted from the nucleus when a neuton decays to a proton and an electron.

Fuel Cells

Voltaic cells in which the reactants (usually gases) are supplied continuously.
A voltaic cell that converts the chemical energy of a fuel and an oxidizing agent directly into electriacl energy on a continuous basis.

Ampere

Unit of electrical current, one ampere equals one coulomb per second.

 

Solubility Product Principle

The solubility product constant expression for a slightly soluble compound is the product of the concentrations of the constituent ions, each raised to the power that corresponds to the number of ions in one formula unit.

yttria

Y2O3: A white, water-insoluble powder, Y2O3, used chiefly in incandescent gas and acetylene mantles.

Heat of Crystallization

The amount of heat that must be removed from one gram of a liquid at its freezing point to freeze it with no change in temperature.

Heat

A form of energy that flows between two samples of matter because of their differences in temperature.