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A U-shaped tube containing electrolyte, which connects two half-cells of a voltaic cell.

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Catenation

Bonding of atoms of the same element into chains or rings.
The bonding together of atoms of the same element to form chains.
The ability of an element to bond to itself.

Chain Termination Step

The combination of two radicals, which removes the reactive species that propagate the change reaction.

Absolute Entropy (of a substance)

The increase in the entropy of a substance as it goes from a perfectly ordered crystalline form at 0 °K (where its entropy is zero) to the temperature in question.

Entropy is a measure of the “dilution” of thermal energy.

Electrolytic Conduction

Conduction of electrical current by ions through a solution or pure liquid.

Delocalization

Of electrons, refers to bonding electrons that are distributed among more than two atoms that are bonded together, occurs in species that exhibit resonance.
The formation of a set of molecular orbitals that extend over more than two atoms, important in species that valence bond theory describes in terms of resonance.

Hydrate

A solid compound that contains a definite percentage of bound water.

Deposition

The direct solidification of a vapor by cooling, the reverse of sublimation.

Alkaline Battery

A dry cell in which the electrolyte contains KOH.

Alkenes (Olefins)

Unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain one or more carbon-carbon double bonds.

Spectrum

Display of component wavelengths (colours) of electromagnetic radiation.

Standard Electrodes

Half-cells in which the oxidized and reduced forms of a species are present at unit activity, 1.0M solutions of dissolved ions, 1.0atm partial pressure of gases, and pure solids and liquids.

Physical Change

A change in which a substance changes from one physical state to another but no substances with different composition are formed. Example Gas to Liquid - Solid.

 

Dissociation Constant

Equilibrium constant that applies to the dissociation of a comples ion into a simple ion and coordinating species (ligands).

Ester

A Compound of the general formula R-C-O-R1 where R and R1 may be the same or different, and may be either aliphatic or aromatic.

End Point

The point at which an indicator changes colour and a titration is stopped.

Limiting Reactant

Substance that stoichiometrically limits the amount of product(s) that can be formed.

Faraday's Law of Electrolysis

One equivalent weight of a substance is produced at each electrode during the passage of 96,487 coulombs of charge through an electrolytic cell.

Film badge

A small patch of photographic film worn on clothing to detect and measure accumulated incident ionizing radiation.

Vapor

A gas formed by boiling or evaporating a liquid.

Adhesive Forces

Forces of attraction between a liquid and another surface.