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A U-shaped tube containing electrolyte, which connects two half-cells of a voltaic cell.

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  • Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...

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    The most famous type of garnet stone is pyrope (flaming). This is the "oldest of garnets", with a dense red color, similar to the grain of an edible garnet. Pyrope has a variety called rhodolite - a stone of dense pink or pink-purple color, which sometimes has the alexandrite effect and is used in...

  • Diamonds Are Forever

    Diamonds are still a girl's best friend, right? We love the shiny gems. They are the most popular rocks sold today. But what exactly are they, anyway? Where do they come from? What else are they used for?

  • Ozone

    We breathe 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, consuming about 25 kg of air every day. It turns out that we practically predetermine our health by the air we breathe.

  • Why do copper products change color, and what is the name of the process?

    Probably, every person wants to know, why over time the copper turns green and becomes bloomed. This is easy to explain: that film is called patina.



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Tyndall Effect

The scattering of light by colloidal particles.

Primary Standard

A substance of a known high degree of purity that undergoes one invariable reaction with the other reactant of interest.

Coordination Number

In describing crystals, the number of nearest neighbours of an atom or ion. The number of donor atoms coordinated to a metal.

Common Ion Effect

Suppression of ionization of a weak electrolyte by the presence in the same solution of a strong electrolyte containing one of the same ions as the weak electrolyte.

Transition State Theory

Theory of reaction rates that states that reactants pass through high-energy transition states before forming products.

Nuclear Binding Energy

Energy equivalent of the mass deficiency, energy released in the formation of an atom from the subatomic particles.

 

Mass

A measure of the amount of matter in an object. Mass is usually measured in grams or kilograms.

History of diamonds

Diamond has been known for about 5 thousand years. Historians suggest that it was first discovered in India in river placers. It has long been credited with magical properties, and the largest famous crystals and products from them are shrouded in a halo of mystical legends.

Nuclear Reaction

Involves a change in the composition of a nucleus and can evolve or absorb an extraordinarily large amount of energy.

Sublimation

The direct vaporization of a sold by heating without passing through the liquid state.