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A favourable interaction of two electrons with opposite m , values in the same orbital.

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Dipole-dipole Interactions

Attractive interactions between polar molecules, that is, between molecules with permanent dipoles.

Percent Purity

The percent of a specified compound or element in an impure sample.

History of diamonds

Diamond has been known for about 5 thousand years. Historians suggest that it was first discovered in India in river placers. It has long been credited with magical properties, and the largest famous crystals and products from them are shrouded in a halo of mystical legends.

Saccharic acid

A white, needlelike, crystalline, water-soluble solid or syrup, C6H10O8, usually made by the oxidation of cane sugar, glucose, or starch by nitric acid. Also called "Glucaric acid."

Cation

A positive ion, an atom or group of atoms that has lost one or more electrons.

Eutrophication

The undesirable overgrowth of vegetation caused by high concentrates of plant nutrients in bodies of water.

Integrated Rate Equation

An equation giving the concentration of a reactant remaining after a specified time, has different mathematical form for different orders of reactants.

Intermolecular Forces

Forces between individual particles (atoms, molecules, ions) of a substance.

Extrapolate

To estimate the value of a result outside the range of a series of known values. Technique used in standard additions calibration procedure.

Acetic Acid

CA3COOH, clear, colorless liquid, pungent odor. Boiling point 140C, flash point 54C (closed cup), autoignition temperature 38OC.