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A favourable interaction of two electrons with opposite m , values in the same orbital.

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Group

A vertical column in the periodic table, also called a family.

Atomic Radius

Radius of an atom.

Curie (Ci)

The basic unit used to describe the intensity of radioactivity in a sample of material. One curie equals 37 billion disintegrations per second or approximately the amount of radioactivty given off by 1 gram of radium.

Film badge

A small patch of photographic film worn on clothing to detect and measure accumulated incident ionizing radiation.

Saccharide

An organic compound containing a sugar or sugars.

London Forces

Very weak and very short-range attractive forces between short-lived temporary (induced) dipoles, also called dispersion Forces.

Energy

The capacity to do work or transfer heat.

Nitrogen Cycle

The complex series of reactions by which nitrogen is slowly but continually recycled in the atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere.

 

Debye

The unit used to express dipole moments.

Three ways to make patina at home

The first way is ammonia patination. To do this, take a plastic container. Put a couple of paper or ordinary towels at the bottom. Moisten them with ammonia. Then sprinkle with large table salt.