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A favourable interaction of two electrons with opposite m , values in the same orbital.

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Ligand

A Lewis base in a coordination compound.

First Law of Thermodynamics

The total amount of energy in the universe is constant (also known as the Law of Conservation of Energy) energy is neither created nor destroyed in ordinary chemical reactions and physical changes.

Safranine

Also called "phenosafranine". A purplish-red, water-soluble dye, C18H14N4, used for textiles and as a stain in microscopy.

Detergent

A soap-like emulsifer that contains a sulfate, SO3 or a phosphate group instead of a carboxylate group.

Quantum Numbers

Numbers that describe the energies of electrons in atoms, derived from quantum mechanical treatment.

Dynamic Equilibrium

An equilibrium in which processes occur continuously, with no net change. When two (or more) processes occur at the same rate so that no net change occurs.

Melting Point

The temperature at which liquid and solid coexist in equilibrium, also the freezing point.

Tyndall Effect

The scattering of light by colloidal particles.

Isomorphous

Refers to crystals having the same atomic arrangement.

Anion

A negative ion, an atom or goup of atoms that has gained one or more electrons.