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Valence bond designation for a complex in which the metal ion utilizes d orbitals in the outermost (occupied) shell in hybridization.

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Nonelectrolyte

A substance whose aqueous solutions do not conduct electricity.

Born-Haber Cycle

A series of reactions (and accompanying enthalpy changes) which, when summed, represents the hypothetical one-step reaction by which elements in their standard states are converted into crystals of ionic compounds (and the accompanying enthalpy changes.)

Crystal Field Stabilization Energy

A measure of the net energy of stabilization gained by a metal ion's nonbonding d electrons as a result of complex formation.

Precipitate

An insoluble solid formed by mixing in solution the constituent ions of a slightly soluble solution.

Control Rods

Rods of materials such as cadmium or boron steel that act as neutron obsorbers (not merely moderaters) used in nuclear reactors to control neutron fluxes and therfore rates of fission.

Polar Bond

Covalent bond in which there is an unsymmetrical distribution of electron density.

Bond Energy

The amount of energy necessary to break one mole of bonds of a given kind (in gas phase).The amount of energy necessary to break one mole of bonds in a substance, dissociating the sustance in the gaseous state into atoms of its elements in the gaseous state.

Isotopes

Two or more forms of atoms of the same element with different masses, atoms containing the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.

Reaction Stoichiometry

Description of the quantitative relationships among substances as they participate in chemical reactions.

Square Planar Complex

Complex in which the metal is in the center of a square plane, with ligand donor atoms at each of the four corners.