Valence bond designation for a complex in which the metal ion utilizes d orbitals in the outermost (occupied) shell in hybridization.
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Diamonds are still a girl's best friend, right? We love the shiny gems. They are the most popular rocks sold today. But what exactly are they, anyway? Where do they come from? What else are they used for?
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Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry. As these quality standards become...
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The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...
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In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.
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Most of the microscopes used today are compound. A compound microscope features two or more lenses. A hollow cylinder called the tube connects the two lenses. The top lens, the one people look through, is called the eyepiece. The bottom lens is known as the objective lens. Below the two lenses is...
Solubility Product Principle
The solubility product constant expression for a slightly soluble compound is the product of the concentrations of the constituent ions, each raised to the power that corresponds to the number of ions in one formula unit.
Elements with properties intermediate between metals and nonmetals: B, Al, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po, and At.
A substance that does not conduct electricity at low temperatures but does so at higher temperatures.
Refers to substances that crystallize in more than one crystalline arrangement.
The percentage of the weak electrolyte that ionizes in a solution of given concentration.
Energy required to pair two electrons in the same orbital.
A class of enzymes found in bacteria within root nodules in some plants, which catalyze reactions by which N2 molecules from the air are converted to ammonia.
An element below and to the left of the stepwise division (metalloids) in the upper right corner of the periodic table, about 80% of the known elements are metals.
Lewis Dot Formula (Electron Dot Formula)
Representation of the core of a molecule, ion or formula unit by showing atomic symbols and only outer shell electrons.
Heat of Fusion
The amount of heat required to melt one gram of solid at its melting point with no change in temperature. Usually expressed in J/g. The molar heat of fusion is the amount of heat required to melt one mole of a solid at its melting point with no change in temperature and is usually expressed in kJ/mol.
Potentials, E, of half-reactions as reductions versus the standard hydrogen electrode.
An atom or group of atoms that contains one or more unpaired electrons (usually very reactive species)
Group VIIA elements: F, Cl, Br, I
Oxidation of metals in the presence of air and moisture.
The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of substance one degree Celsius.
The ability of a substance to become permanently magnetized by exposure to an external magnetic field.
The solvent-like phase in a colloid.
The time required for half of a reactant to be converted into product(s). The time required for half of a given sample to undergo radioactive decay.
Pair of electrons residing on one atom and not shared by other atoms, unshared pair.
A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in the center and four atoms at the corners of a square.