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The hydrostatic pressure produced on the surface of a semipermable membrane by osmosis.

Latest Articles

  • Interesting facts about metals

    Metals have been used by people since ancient times. All the time the process of obtaining them was improved, useful alloys of various metals appeared. Let’s look at interesting facts about metals.

  • Varieties of garnet minerals

    The most famous type of garnet stone is pyrope (flaming). This is the "oldest of garnets", with a dense red color, similar to the grain of an edible garnet. Pyrope has a variety called rhodolite - a stone of dense pink or pink-purple color, which sometimes has the alexandrite effect and is used in...

  • Ozone

    We breathe 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, consuming about 25 kg of air every day. It turns out that we practically predetermine our health by the air we breathe.

  • The most expensive metal in the world

    Do you think the most expensive metal is gold? No! On earth there are more valuable metals. But we need to divide the value of metals that occur in nature, and metals - isotopes, which are obtained in special laboratories. Let’s look at natural metals first.

  • Chemistry of the sky

    Chemistry can teach us about the composition of celestial bodies and determine their age.

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Fossil Fuels

Substances consisting largely of hydrocarbons, derived from decay of organic materials under geological conditions of high pressure and temperature (metamorphism) include coal, petroleum, natural gas, peat and oil shale.  For further information see Fuel Chemistry

How to make crystal glass

From history we know that the idea of creating crystal belongs to the British: they were the first to add lead oxides to the charge material, and as a result got glass with unusual “voice”, transparency and sparkling faces. Classical crystal contains 24% of lead oxide, but there are products with a higher content of up to 30%.


Placing a thin layer of zinc on a ferrous material to protect the underlying surface from corrosion.



Molecule formed by combination of two smaller (identical) molecules.

Bronsted-Lowry Base

A proton acceptor


Polymeric organosilicon compounds, contain individual or cross-linked Si-O chains or rings in which some oxygens of SiO4 tetrahedra are replaced by other groups.


A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in the center and six atoms at the corners of a octahedron.

Substitution Reaction

A reaction in which an atom or a group of atoms is replaced by another atom or group of atoms.

Equilibrium Constant

A quantity that characterizes the position of equilibrium for a reversible reaction, its magnitude is equal to the mass action expression at equilibrium. K varies with temperature.

Molecular Orbital Theory

A theory of chemical bonding based upon the postulated existence of molecular orbitals.