Method by which elemental sulfur is mined or extracted. Sulfur is melted with superheated water (at 170°C under high pressure) and forced to the surface of the earth as a slurry.
- What are Compound Microscopes?
Most of the microscopes used today are compound. A compound microscope features two or more lenses. A hollow cylinder called the tube connects the two lenses. The top lens, the one people look through, is called the eyepiece. The bottom lens is known as the objective lens. Below the two lenses is...
- Diamonds Are Forever
Diamonds are still a girl's best friend, right? We love the shiny gems. They are the most popular rocks sold today. But what exactly are they, anyway? Where do they come from? What else are they used for?
- Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope
The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...
- What's In Your Beverage? How to Ensure Quality Control with CO2 Analytical Support
Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry. As these quality standards become...
- Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis
In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.
Two or more forms of atoms of the same element with different masses, atoms containing the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.
Ability to conduct electricity.
A subatomic particle having a mass of 0.00054858 amu and a charge of 1-.
Electrochemical cells in which electrical energy causes nospontaneous redox reactions to occur. An electrochemical cell in which chemical reactions are forced to occur by the application of an outside source of electrical energy.
The absolute entropy of a substance in its standard state at 298 K.
Solid triester of glycerol and (mostly) saturated fatty acids.
An artificially induced nuclear reaction caused by the bombardment of a nucleus with subatomic particiles or small nucei.
Hydrogen-Oxygen Fuel Cell
Fuel cell in which hydrogen is the fuel (reducing agent) and oxygen is the oxidizing agent.
An oxidizing or reducing agent, who's mass gains (oxidizing agents) or loses (reducing agents) 6.022 x 1023 electrons in a redox reaction.
The mass of an acid or base that furnishes or reacts with 6.022 x 1023 H3O+ or OH- ions.
Colloidal suspension of a liquid in a liquid.
The process in which a fractioning column is used in distillation apparatus to separate components of a liquid mixture that have different boiling points.
Second Law of Thermodynamics
The universe tends toward a state of greater diorder in spontaneous processes.
Le Chatelier's Principle
States that a system at equilibrium, or striving to attain equilibrium, responds in such a way as to counteract any stress placed upon it.
If a stress (change of conditions) is applied to a system at equilibrium, the system shifts in the direction that reduces stress.
The pressure exerted by one gas in a mixture of gases.
A group of atoms that represents a potential reaction site in an organic compound.
Elements 58 to 71 (after lanthanum).
Spectrum associated with absorption of electromagnetic radiation by atoms (or other species) resulting from transitions from lower to higher energy states. An absorption spectrum is the inverse of an emission spectrum.
Combination of symbols that indicates the chemical composition of a substance.
A protein that acts as a catalyst in biological systems.
A cluster of atoms in a ferromagnetic substance, all of which align in the same direction in the presence of an external magnetic field.