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Equilibria involving species in more than one phase.

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Solute

The dispersed (dissolved) phase of a solution.

Molecular Formula

Formula that indicates the actual number of atoms present in a molecule of a molecular substance.

Indicators

For acid-base titrations, organic compounds that exhibit different colors in solutions of different acidities, used to determine the point at which reaction between two solutes is complete.

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Canal Ray

Stream of positively charged particles (cations) that moves toward the negative electrode in cathode ray tubes, observed to pass through canals in the negative electrode.

Reaction Quotient

The mass action expression under any set of conditions (not necessarily equlibrium), its magnitude relative to K determines the direction in which the reaction must occur to establish equilibrium.

Oxidation-reduction Reactions

Reactions in which oxidation and reduction occur, also called redox reactions.

Ampere

Unit of electrical current, one ampere equals one coulomb per second.

 

Crystal Field Theory

Theory of bonding in transition metal complexes in which ligands and metal ions are treated as point charges, a purely ionic model, ligand point charges represent the crystal (electrical) field perturbing the metal?s d orbitals containing nonbonding electrons.

van der Waals' Equation

An equation of state that extends the ideal gas law to real gases by inclusion of two empirically determined parameters, which are different for different gases.