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Equilibria involving species in more than one phase.

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Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy

The total amount of matter and energy available in the universe is fixed.

Moderator

A substance such as hydrogen, deuterium, oxygen or paraffin capable of slowing fast nuetrons upon collision.

Solubility Product Principle

The solubility product constant expression for a slightly soluble compound is the product of the concentrations of the constituent ions, each raised to the power that corresponds to the number of ions in one formula unit.

Heat of Vaporization

The amount of heat required to vaporize one gram of a liquid at its boiling point with no change in temperature. Usually expressed in J/g. The molar heat of vaporization is the amount of heat required to vaporize one mole of liquid at its boiling point with no change in temperature and usually expressed ion kJ/mol.

Autoionization

An ionization reaction between identical molecules.

Stoichiometry

Description of the quantitative relationships among elements and compounds as they undergo chemical changes.

Melting Point

The temperature at which liquid and solid coexist in equilibrium, also the freezing point.

Absolute Zero

The zero point on the absolute temperature scale, -273.15°C or 0 K, theoretically, the temperature at which molecular motion ceases. The concept of an absolute zero temperature was first deduced from experiments with gases. When a fixed volume of gas is cooled, its pressure decreases with its temperature. Absolute zero physically possesses quantum mechanical zero-point energy.

Mass Deficiency

The amount of matter that would be converted into energy if an atom were formed from constituent particles.

Ground State

The lowest energy state or most stable state of an atom, molecule or ion.