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Symbol for an atom A/Z E, in which E is the symbol of an element, Z is its atomic number, and A is its mass number.

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    Diamonds are still a girl's best friend, right? We love the shiny gems. They are the most popular rocks sold today. But what exactly are they, anyway? Where do they come from? What else are they used for?

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    The most famous type of garnet stone is pyrope (flaming). This is the "oldest of garnets", with a dense red color, similar to the grain of an edible garnet. Pyrope has a variety called rhodolite - a stone of dense pink or pink-purple color, which sometimes has the alexandrite effect and is used in...

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Primary Standard

A substance of a known high degree of purity that undergoes one invariable reaction with the other reactant of interest.


Positively charged or electron-deficient.


Electrode at which reduction occurs in a cathode ray tube, the negative electrode.

Phosphorus Oxychloride

Colorless to slightly yellow fuming liquid.

Mol. Wt.: 153.39
M.P.: 20C
B.P.: 105.1C
Density: 1.685 @ 15.5C
Vapor Pressure: 40 mm @ 27.3C
Vapor Density: 5.3
Used as the phosphorus source for phosphorus diffusion.

Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis

In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.

Theoretical Yield

Maximum amount of a specified product that could be obtained from specified amounts of reactants, assuming complete consumption of limiting reactant according to only one reaction and complete recovery of product.

Electrolytic Cells

Electrochemical cells in which electrical energy causes nospontaneous redox reactions to occur. An electrochemical cell in which chemical reactions are forced to occur by the application of an outside source of electrical energy.

Electron Configuration

Specific distribution of electrons in atomic orbitals of atoms or ions.

Henry's Law

The pressure of the gas above a solution is proportional to the concentration of the gas in the solution.

Ostwald Process

A process for the industrial production of nitrogen oxide and nitric acid from ammonia and oxygen.