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Diagram that shows equilibrium temperature-pressure relationships for different phases of a substance.

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Chain Termination Step

The combination of two radicals, which removes the reactive species that propagate the change reaction.

Background Radiation

Ratiation extraneous to an experiment. Usually the low-level natural radiation form cosmic rays and trace radioactive substances present in our environment.

Binary Acid

A binary compound in which H is bonded to one or more of the more electronegative nonmetals.

pH

Negative logarithm of the concentration (mol/L) of the H3O+[H+] ion, scale is commonly used over a range 0 to 14.

van der Waals' Equation

An equation of state that extends the ideal gas law to real gases by inclusion of two empirically determined parameters, which are different for different gases.

Henry's Law

The pressure of the gas above a solution is proportional to the concentration of the gas in the solution.

Chemical Equation

Description of a chemical reaction by placing the formulas of the reactants on the left and the formulas of products on the right of an arrow.

Primary Standard

A substance of a known high degree of purity that undergoes one invariable reaction with the other reactant of interest.

Calorimeter

A device used to measure the heat transfer between system and surroundings.

Hydrate Isomers

Isomers of crystalline complexes that differ in whether water is present inside or outside the coordination sphere.