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Particles comprising the nucleus, protons and neutrons.

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Vapor

A gas formed by boiling or evaporating a liquid.

Standard Molar Enthalphy of Formation

The amount of heat absorbed in the formation of one mole of a substance in a specified state from its elements in their standard states.

Reaction Stoichiometry

Description of the quantitative relationships among substances as they participate in chemical reactions.

Net Ionic Equation

Equation that results from canceling spectator ions and eliminating brackets from a total ionic equation.

Periodicity

Regular periodic variations of properties of elements with atomic number (and position in the periodic table).

Weak Electrolyte

A substance that conducts electricity poorly in a dilute aqueous solution.

Metal

An element below and to the left of the stepwise division (metalloids) in the upper right corner of the periodic table, about 80% of the known elements are metals.

Voltage

Potential difference between two electrodes, a measure of the chemical potential for a redox reaction to occur.

Alkali Metals

Metals of Group IA (Na, K, Rb).

Mass Action Expression

For a reversible reaction, aA + bB cC + dD the product of the concentrations of the products (species on the right), each raised to the power that corresponds to its coefficient in the balanced chemical equation, divided by the product of the concentrations of reactants (species on the left), each raised to the power that corresponds to its coefficient in the balanced chemical equation. At equilibrium the mass action expression is equal to K, at other times it is Q.[C]c[D]d [A]a[B]b = Q, or at equilibrium K.

Supercooled Liquids

Liquids that, when cooled, apparently solidify but actually continue to flow very slowly under the influence of gravity e.g glass.

Dilution

Process of reducing the concentration of a solute in solution, usually simply by mixing with more solvent.

Ampere

Unit of electrical current, one ampere equals one coulomb per second.

 

Activity Series

A listing of metals (and hydrogen) in order of decreasing activity.

Avogadro's Law

At the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes of all gases contain the same number of molecules.

Metallic Bonding

Bonding within metals due to the electrical attraction of positively charges metal ions for mobile electrons that belong to the crystal as a whole.

Coordination Number

In describing crystals, the number of nearest neighbours of an atom or ion. The number of donor atoms coordinated to a metal.

Ketone

Compound in which a carbonyl group is bound to two alkyl or two aryl groups, or to one alkyl and one aryl group.

Joule

A unit of energy in the SI system. One joule is 1 kg. m2/s2 which is also 0.2390 calorie.

Crystal Lattice Energy

Amount of energy that holds a crystal together, the energy change when a mole of solid is formed from its constituent molecules or ions (for ionic compounds) in their gaseous state.