A region in which the probability of finding an electron is zero.
- Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope
The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...
- Diamonds Are Forever
Diamonds are still a girl's best friend, right? We love the shiny gems. They are the most popular rocks sold today. But what exactly are they, anyway? Where do they come from? What else are they used for?
- Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis
In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.
- Harmful Chemicals Found In Food
It's getting close to New Years and many people are starting to think about how to lose those extra pounds they managed to gain over the holidays. There are many sorts of diets and fads that have developed over the years from cutting carbs to cutting protein. Everyone has their own opinion as to...
- What are Compound Microscopes?
Most of the microscopes used today are compound. A compound microscope features two or more lenses. A hollow cylinder called the tube connects the two lenses. The top lens, the one people look through, is called the eyepiece. The bottom lens is known as the objective lens. Below the two lenses is...
The buildup of a product of oxidation or a reduction of an electrode, preventing further reaction.
Outermost electrons of atoms, usually those involved in bonding.
Ideal Gas Law
The product of pressure and the volume of an ideal gas is directly proportional to the number of moles of the gas and the absolute temperature.
Photochemically produced oxidizing agents capable of causing damage to plants and animals.
Potential difference between two electrodes, a measure of the chemical potential for a redox reaction to occur.
A small amount of radioisotope replacing a nonradioactive isotope of the element in a compound whose path (for example, in the body) or whose decomposition products are to be monitored by detection of radioctivity, also called a radioactive label.
A small patch of photographic film worn on clothing to detect and measure accumulated incident ionizing radiation.
Involves a change in the composition of a nucleus and can evolve or absorb an extraordinarily large amount of energy.
Law of Conservation of Matter
There is no detectable change in the quantity of matter during an ordinary chemical reaction.
The prefix used to indicate that groups are located on the same side of a bon about which rotation is restricted.
Pauli Exclusion Principle
No two electrons in the same atom may have identical sets of four quantum numbers.
Effective Nuclear Charge
The nuclear charge experienced by the outermost electrons of an atom, the actual nuclear charge minus the effects of shielding due to inner-shell electrons.
Example: Set of dx2-y2 and dz2 orbitals, those d orbitals within a set with lobes directed along the x-, y-, and z-axes.
Y2O3: A white, water-insoluble powder, Y2O3, used chiefly in incandescent gas and acetylene mantles.
Complex species that contain ammonia molecules bonded to metal ions.
Colloidal suspension of a solid dispersed in a liquid, a semirigid solid.
Two methyl groups of the same carbon atom.
Inner Orbital Complex
Valence bond designation for a complex in which the metal ion utilizes d orbitals for one shell inside the outermost occupied shell in its hybridization.
Hess' Law of Heat Summation
The enthalpy change for a reaction is the same whether it occurs in one step or a series of steps.
Binding Energy (nuclear binding energy)
The energy equivalent (E = mc^2) of the mass deficiency of an atom. where: E = is the energy in joules, m is the mass in kilograms, and c is the speed of light in m/s^2
Radius of an atom.