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Elements of the periodic Group 0, also called rare gases, formerly called inert gases, He,Ne,Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn.

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End Point

The point at which an indicator changes colour and a titration is stopped.

Electron Affinity

The amount of energy absorbed in the process in which an electron is added to a neutral isolated gaseous atom to form a gaseous ion with a 1- charge, has a negative value if energy is released.

Chemical Equilibrium

A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal, there is no net change in concentrations of reactants or products while a system is at equilibrium.

Melting Point

The temperature at which liquid and solid coexist in equilibrium, also the freezing point.

Covalent Bond

Chemical bond formed by the sharing of one or more electron pairs between two atoms.

Three ways to make patina at home

The first way is ammonia patination. To do this, take a plastic container. Put a couple of paper or ordinary towels at the bottom. Moisten them with ammonia. Then sprinkle with large table salt.

Law of Conservation of Energy

Energy cannot be created or destroyed, it may be changed from one form to another.

Valence Bond Theory

Assumes that covalent bonds are formed when atomic orbitals on different atoms overlap and the electrons are shared.


The number of repeating corresponding points on a wave that pass a given observation point per unit time.


An atom or group of atoms that contains one or more unpaired electrons (usually very reactive species)