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HNO3: A strong acid, it is toxic and can cause severe burns. Transparent colorless or yellowish, fuming, suffocating, caustic and corrosive liquid. Nitric acid boiling point is 83C. A 70 percent solution is used in the S.S.E. laboratory for junction depth measurements. Nitric acid is also present in the metal etch solution used for the Aluminum etch procedure.

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Magnetic Quantum Number (mc)

Quantum mechanical solution to a wave equation that designates the particular orbital within a given set (s, p, d, f ) in which a electron resides.

Critical Temperature

The temperature above which a gas cannot be liquefied, the temperature above which a substance cannot exhibit distinct gas and liquid phases.

Cation

A positive ion, an atom or group of atoms that has lost one or more electrons.

Shielding Effect

Electrons in filled sets of s , p orbitals between the nucleus and outer shell electrons shield the outer shell electrons somewhat from the effect of protons in the nucleus, also called screening effect.

Reversible Reaction

Reactions that do not go to completion and occur in both the forward and reverse direction.

Critical Pressure

The pressure required to liquefy a gas (vapor) at its critical temperature.

Alkyl Group

A group of atoms derived from an alkane by the removal of one hydrogen atom.

Homonuclear

Consisting of only one element.

Phase Diagram

Diagram that shows equilibrium temperature-pressure relationships for different phases of a substance.

Vapor

A gas formed by boiling or evaporating a liquid.