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HNO3: A strong acid, it is toxic and can cause severe burns. Transparent colorless or yellowish, fuming, suffocating, caustic and corrosive liquid. Nitric acid boiling point is 83C. A 70 percent solution is used in the S.S.E. laboratory for junction depth measurements. Nitric acid is also present in the metal etch solution used for the Aluminum etch procedure.

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The ability to react with both acids and bases.Ability of substance to act as either an acid or a base.


Ytterbia is a colorless compound, Yb2O3, used in certain alloys and ceramics. Also known as ytterbium oxide.

Avogadro's Law

At the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes of all gases contain the same number of molecules.

Lanthanide Contraction

A decrease in the radii of the elements following the lanthanides compared to what would be expected if there were no f-transition metals.

Heat of Vaporization

The amount of heat required to vaporize one gram of a liquid at its boiling point with no change in temperature. Usually expressed in J/g. The molar heat of vaporization is the amount of heat required to vaporize one mole of liquid at its boiling point with no change in temperature and usually expressed ion kJ/mol.

Photoelectric Effect

Emission of an electron from the surface of a metal caused by impinging electromagnetic radiation of certain minimum energy, current increases with increasing intensity of radiation.



A substance whose aqueous solutions conduct electricity.


Law of Partial Pressures (Dalton's Law)

The total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the partial pressures of the individual gases.

Conjugate Acid-base Pair

In Bronsted-Lowry terminology, a reactant and product that differ by a proton, H+.

Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory

Assumes that electron pairs are arranged around the central element of a molecule or polyatomic ion so that there is maximum separation (and minimum repulsion) among regions of high electron density.