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HNO3: A strong acid, it is toxic and can cause severe burns. Transparent colorless or yellowish, fuming, suffocating, caustic and corrosive liquid. Nitric acid boiling point is 83C. A 70 percent solution is used in the S.S.E. laboratory for junction depth measurements. Nitric acid is also present in the metal etch solution used for the Aluminum etch procedure.

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Shielding Effect

Electrons in filled sets of s , p orbitals between the nucleus and outer shell electrons shield the outer shell electrons somewhat from the effect of protons in the nucleus, also called screening effect.

Detergent

A soap-like emulsifer that contains a sulfate, SO3 or a phosphate group instead of a carboxylate group.

Cis-Trans Isomerism

A type of geometrical isomerism related to the angles between like ligands.

Condensed Phases

The liquid and solid phases, phases in which particles interact strongly.

Homologous Series

A series of compounds in which each member differs from the next by a specific number and kind of atoms.

Isomers

Different substances that have the same formula.

Nuclear Reactor

A system in which controlled nuclear fisson reactions generate heat energy on a large scale, which is subsequently converted into electrical energy.

Acid Anhydride

Compound produced by dehydration of a carbonic acid. General formula is R--C--O--C--R. Chemical compound that reacts with water to form an acid and are usually oxides of nonmetallic elements.

Molecular Geometry

The arrangement of atoms (not lone pairs of electrons) around a central atom of a molecule or polyatomic ion.

How is colored crystal made?

However, not everyone knows that in addition to the traditional transparent, there is still an unusually beautiful and spectacular colored crystal, which is obtained through the addition of various metal oxides into the glass. They give the crystal unusually noble shades of red, purple, blue, green and pink colors.