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HNO3: A strong acid, it is toxic and can cause severe burns. Transparent colorless or yellowish, fuming, suffocating, caustic and corrosive liquid. Nitric acid boiling point is 83C. A 70 percent solution is used in the S.S.E. laboratory for junction depth measurements. Nitric acid is also present in the metal etch solution used for the Aluminum etch procedure.

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Open Sextet

Refers to species that have only six electrons in the highest energy level of the central element (many Lewis acids).

Weak Electrolyte

A substance that conducts electricity poorly in a dilute aqueous solution.

Differential Thermometer

A thermometer used for accurate measurement of very small changes in temperature.

Heat of Vaporization

The amount of heat required to vaporize one gram of a liquid at its boiling point with no change in temperature. Usually expressed in J/g. The molar heat of vaporization is the amount of heat required to vaporize one mole of liquid at its boiling point with no change in temperature and usually expressed ion kJ/mol.

Heat of Solution

The amount of heat absorbed in the formation of solution that contains one mole of solute, the value is positive if heat is absorbed (endothermic) and negative if heat is released (exothermic).

Ionic Geometry

The arrangement of atoms (not lone pairs of electrons) about the central atom of a polyatomic ion.

Forbidden Zone

A relatively large energy separation between an insulator's highest filled electron energy band and the next higher energy vacant band. Beginning in the fourth energy level, a set of seven degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s, p, and d orbitals of the same energy level.

Coordination Sphere

The metal ion and its coordinating ligands but not any uncoordinated counter-ions.


Discovered : known to ancient civilisations
Origin : The name is derived from 'Cuprum', the Latin name for Cyprus.


A class of silicate and aluminosilicate minerals with sheet-like structures that have enormous surface areas that can absorb large amounts of water.