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Corrects standard electrode potentials for nonstandard conditions.

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Acetic Acid

CA3COOH, clear, colorless liquid, pungent odor. Boiling point 140C, flash point 54C (closed cup), autoignition temperature 38OC.

Periodic Table of Elements

An arrangement of elements in order of increasing atomic numbers that also emphasizes periodicity.

Inner Orbital Complex

Valence bond designation for a complex in which the metal ion utilizes d orbitals for one shell inside the outermost occupied shell in its hybridization.

Buffer Solution

Solution that resists change in pH, contains either a weak acid and a soluble ionic salt of the acid or a weak base and a soluble ionic salt of the base.

Entropy

A thermodynamic state or property that measures the degree of disorder or randomness of a system.

Extrapolate

To estimate the value of a result outside the range of a series of known values. Technique used in standard additions calibration procedure.

Activation Energy

Amount of energy that must be absorbed by reactants in their ground states to reach the transition state so that a reaction can occur. In other words, activation energy is the minimum energy required for a chemical reaction to occur.

Salt and its use in everyday life

Cooking salt is a product that is available in every kitchen, and it’s not as simple as it seems. The history of this product shows that it was valued like gold.

Hybridization

Mixing a set of atomic orbitals to form a new set of atomic orbitals with the same total electron capacity and with properties and energies intermediate between those of the original unhybridized orbitals.

Critical Mass

The minimum mass of a particular fissionable nuclide in a given volume required to sustain a nuclear chain reaction.