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Equation that results from canceling spectator ions and eliminating brackets from a total ionic equation.

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Oxidation Numbers

Arbitrary numbers that can be used as mechanical aids in writing formulas and balancing equations, for single- atom ions they correspond to the charge on the ion, more electronegative atoms are assigned negative oxidation numbers (also called Oxidation states).

Lone Pair

Pair of electrons residing on one atom and not shared by other atoms, unshared pair.

Allotropic Modifications (Allotropes)

Different forms of the same element in the same physical state.

Energy

The capacity to do work or transfer heat.

Aufbau ('building up') Principle

Describes the order in which electrons fill orbitals in atoms.

Radioactive Tracer

A small amount of radioisotope replacing a nonradioactive isotope of the element in a compound whose path (for example, in the body) or whose decomposition products are to be monitored by detection of radioctivity, also called a radioactive label.

Avogadro's Number

The number (6.022x10^23) of atoms, molecules or particles found in exactly 1 mole of substance.

Anode

In a cathode ray tube, the positive electrode. Electrode at which oxidation occurs.

Structural Isomers

Compounds that contain the same number of the same kinds of atoms in different geometric arrangements.

Crystal Lattice Energy

Amount of energy that holds a crystal together, the energy change when a mole of solid is formed from its constituent molecules or ions (for ionic compounds) in their gaseous state.